What the sick man likes to eat is his medicine. - Russian Proverb
RFE/RL Daily Report

No. 83, 30 April 1992





SUCCESSOR STATES TO THE USSR

BLACK SEA FLEET TALKS BEGIN. Russian and Ukrainian negotiators
met for five hours in Odessa on 29 April on the first day of
their talks on the future of the ex-Soviet Black Sea Fleet. Western
agencies quoted the leader of the Russian delegation, Yurii Yarov,
as saying there had been a "constructive and a cooperative search
for a solution," while the press secretary of the Ukrainian delegation,
Andrei Veselovsky, said that the Ukrainians were "not satisfied
with the route they [the Russians] took, but we are satisfied
with the results of today's talks." Interfax reported that the
head of the Ukrainian delegation had requested that Admiral Vladimir
Chernavin, the commander of the CIS Navy, be included in the
talks. Interfax also carried a statement from the fleet press
center in Sevastopol denying a recent report that Chernavin had
ordered the dismissal of seaman who had sworn loyalty to Ukraine.
(Doug Clarke)

BAKER: NO US MILITARY COMMITMENT TO UKRAINE, KAZAKHSTAN. In response
to indications this week from Ukraine and Kazakhstan that the
two countries are seeking some form of security agreement with
the United States (see Daily Report, 29 April), Secretary of
State James Baker told American reporters on 28 April that, in
the event of a threatened nuclear attack against either of the
two CIS members, the United States would render political support
by bringing the issue to the UN Security Council. But even limited
political guarantees would depend, he emphasized, on Ukraine
and Kazakhstan signing the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and
renouncing nuclear arms. Baker firmly ruled out the possibility
of extending a formal security guarantee or US military commitment
to the two states. (Kathy Mihalisko)

IZVESTIYA: UKRAINE AND KAZAKHSTAN SEEK TO 'PRIVATIZE' CIS ARSENAL.
In an interview published on 29 April in Izvestiya, Aleksandr
Savelev, vice president of the Russian Institute on National
Security and Strategic Studies, accused Ukraine and Kazakhstan
of "attempting in fact to 'privatize' the CIS nuclear arsenals
on their territory." He said that judging by recent statements
by Leonid Kravchuk and Nursultan Nazarbaev, the two presidents
consider these arms as "their own." Savelev lamented Russia's
protracted silence in the face of assertions that it represents
the main external threat to Ukraine and Kazakhstan. (Kathy Mihalisko)


RUSSIA TO TAKE OVER MILITARY INTELLIGENCE. The ex-Soviet Military
Intelligence Service (GRU), currently subordinated to the CIS
General Staff, will be transferred to the jurisdiction of the
Russian government, the chief of the GRU said in an interview
published by Krasnaya zvezda on 29 April. According to a Reuters
report, Colonel General Evgenii Timokhin also said that for the
time being the GRU would cease working in the non-Russian CIS
member states and denied that overseas operations would be scrapped.
He said the service was organized on three levels: Strategic
Intelligence Services, Technical Services, and Operational Intelligences
in the army, air force, and navy. (Stephen Foye)

BELARUS DENIES ALL TACTICAL MISSILES OUT. Interfax on 29 April
reported that both the Belarusian Ministry of Defense and the
headquarters of the Belarusian Military District had denied the
recent reports that all tactical nuclear weapons had been removed
from Belarus. These sources said that the remaining weapons would
leave the republic only in the first half of May. (Doug Clarke)


LAW ON CRIMEA'S STATUS ADOPTED. After a heated debate and protests
from Crimean deputies, the Ukrainian parliament on 29 April passed
a law defining the status of the Crimean Republic, Radio Ukraine
and Ukrinform-TASS reported. The law stipulates that Crimea is
a constituent part of Ukraine and that its territory cannot be
changed or transferred to another country or territorial-administrative
unit without the approval of its people. It also says that Crimea
decides independently those issues within its competence in accordance
with the Ukrainian constitution and laws. (Roman Solchanyk)

FUND FOR UKRAINE'S NATIONAL MINORITIES. President Leonid Kravchuk
has issued a decree creating a fund for Ukraine's national minorities,
Ukrinform-TASS reported on 29 April. The fund is intended to
promote the development of the languages and cultures of Ukraine's
ethnic minorities. (Roman Solchanyk)

UKRAINE'S EXPANDING TIES WITH TURKEY, IRAN. While most international
attention is focused on Turkish and Iranian efforts to increase
their respective influence in Central Asia, rapidly growing contacts
between these two countries and Kiev may also be noted. For instance,
Radio Ukraine reported on 29 April that the chairman of the Ukrainian
parliament, Ivan Pliushch, returned that day from Turkey. In
the month of February, during a conference of states bordering
the Black Sea, the Turkish press indicated that Ukraine could
be a partner in a kind of second European Common Market and,
indeed, Turkish businessmen are extremely active in seeking commercial
opportunities there; a Kiev-Istanbul bus service is expected
soon. And, on the eve of Leonid Kravchuk's official visit to
Teheran, the 18 April issue of Demokratychna Ukraina provided
an historical overview of trade with Persia that went back to
the 6th century A.D. (Kathy Mihalisko)

UKRAINE, IRAN REACH AGREEMENT ON OIL SUPPLIES. According to ITAR-TASS
of 29 April, Iranian and Ukrainian negotiators have reached agreement
on oil supplies to Ukraine. Recent meetings in Teheran focused
on the economics of the issue. Odessa is to be the site of a
new oil terminal that will handle the flow of Iranian oil. Plans
were also discussed for new major oil and gas pipelines. Ukraine
is the largest of the former Soviet republics to take steps to
reduce its dependence on Russian energy. (John Tedstrom)

CIS COMMANDER CRITICIZES GERMAN OFFICIALS. Colonel General Matvei
Burlakov, the commander of the ex-Soviet forces stationed in
Germany, has accused German officials of dragging their feet
in compensating the CIS for the military facilities his troops
are leaving, and for not building housing for them fast enough.
Reuters on 28 April reported that Burlakov charged that the German
Finance Ministry--responsible for disposing of the vacated military
property--was doing this job "in an unsatisfactory manner." The
report said that Russia had valued the property at 10.5 billion
marks ($6.5 billion), a figure Bonn believed to be far too high.
Burlakov also said that the pace of German-financed apartment
construction was not keeping up with the withdrawals. (Doug Clarke)


RUSSIAN EXIT VISAS REINTRODUCED. An editorial in Izvestiya of
24 April reported that the Russian authorities have reintroduced
the policy of requiring exit visas for Russian citizens seeking
to travel abroad. In recent years, the newspaper said, Soviet
citizens going abroad with special "business" passports did not
need exit visas, which are issued only with KGB approval. Izvestiya
viewed the revival of this requirement as yet another setback
from the more liberal policies initiated during the Gorbachev
era. According to Izvestiya, the Russian Foreign Ministry strongly
opposes this rule because it gives the KGB the right to decide
who can and cannot travel abroad. If the new USSR law on foreign
travel were to come into force next January, as had been planned
when it was adopted in the summer of 1991, this practice would
be abolished in accordance with the law's provisions. (Julia
Wishnevsky/Carla Thorson)

RUTSKOI IN ISRAEL. Russian Vice President Aleksandr Rutskoi said
that President Boris Yeltsin also plans to visit Israel in the
"near future," Western agencies reported on 29 April. Rutskoi
is on a high-level visit to Israel in order to study Israel's
agricultural policy. He is scheduled to meet Prime Minister Yitzhak
Shamir and then depart for Egypt on a similar agricultural fact-finding
tour. (Alexander Rahr)

JAPAN SUPPORTS RUSSIAN REFORM EFFORTS. Despite lingering disagreement
over the Kurile Islands, Japan "is ready to render assistance
to reforms in Russia," according to Japanese Foreign Minister
Michio Watanabe, whose remarks were carried by ITAR-TASS 29 April.
Watanabe said, in an interview published in Komsomolskaya pravda
on 29 April, that he was looking forward to open discussions
on the territorial dispute. In addition to participation in the
financial support Japan is providing as part of the G-7 arrangement,
Japan intends to provide humanitarian support to Russia during
the next two years. Other high-profile efforts by Japan include
a mixture of public and private initiatives to support the conversion
of Russian defense industries. (John Tedstrom)

CIS LEADERS DISCUSS FUTURE OF "OSTANKINO" TV. Leaders of state
television companies in the CIS states met in the Belarus capital
of Minsk to discuss the future of the Moscow-based "Ostankino"
TV channel (the former first program of Central Soviet TV). The
officials discussed how to transform "Ostankino," which is reportedly
watched by 97% of the adult population in the former USSR, into
a joint TV channel for the entire Commonwealth. Although the
management of "Ostankino" stresses its support for this plan,
so far this channel has been marked by a distinct pro-Russian
bias and is therefore often criticized by non-Russian members
of the CIS. ITAR-TASS said on 29 April that the final decision
on the future of "Ostankino" would be taken at a meeting of TV
officials in the CIS to be held soon in Alma-Ata. (Vera Tolz)


MIKHALKOV'S CONTROVERSIAL SHOW BROADCAST. As promised (see Daily
Report of 27 April), the "Ostankino" TV management broadcast
Nikita Mikhalkov's "Crossroads" that had been censored five days
earlier. The show was preceded and followed by discussions with
cinema critics who attacked Mikhalkov. It was broadcast on 30
April between midnight and 3 a.m.(Moscow time), not during prime
time, as had been originally scheduled on 22 April. According
to Mikhalkov, the reason for the ban was his criticism of the
democrats now in power, such as Gennadii Burbulis. "Ostankino's"
management, however, cited the program's alleged poor artistic
quality. (Julia Wishnevsky)

CONTROVERSY OVER CPSU TRIAL CONTINUES. Radical members of the
St. Petersburg City Council demanded that the CPSU be put on
trial for crimes conducted by the Soviet regime, "Ostankino"
TV reported on 29 April. Individual deputies of the council have
put forward similar proposals in the past. The deputies also
argued that the Russian parliament should pass a law forbidding
former members of the CPSU nomenklatura from occupying top government
and state positions for the next five years. (It is doubtful
that such a law has any chance of being adopted, since many members
of the current Russian leadership, including President Boris
Yeltsin, are former members of the Party nomenklatura.) (Vera
Tolz)

RUSSIAN JEWS COMMEMORATE HOLOCAUST VICTIMS. Russian Jewish organizations
met for the first time on 29 April to commemorate the victims
of the Nazi holocaust. Held in the Russian parliament's headquarters,
the conference coincided with the anniversary of the Warsaw Ghetto
uprising. In "Vesti's" coverage of the event, the anchor noted
that of the 6 million Jews who perished during Nazi rule, 2.5
million were Soviet citizens. In an interview with the RFE/RL
Russian service, an organizer noted that no Russian official
had attended the conference and contrasted this with last year's
commemoration of the wartime Jewish massacre in Kievan Babii
Yar which was attended by Ukrainian President Leonid Kravchuk
and USSR presidential representative, Aleksandr Yakovlev. (Julia
Wishnevsky)

PARLIAMENTARY CRISIS LOOMS IN ARMENIA. On 29 April the Armenian
parliament rejected for the third time the plan for Armenia's
social-economic development proposed by President Levon Ter-Petrossyan,
ITAR-TASS reported, whereupon Prime Minister Gagik Arutyunyan
tendered his resignation, which Ter-Petrossyan refused to accept.
Ter-Petrossyan accused parliamentary deputies of sabotaging the
republic's political course and stated that he is legally entitled
to implement his economic program in the form of a presidential
decree. (Liz Fuller)

SITUATION IN DUSHANBE. Citizens of Dushanbe who are not involved
in the huge pro- and anti-government demonstrations have had
enough of the disruption of life in the Tajik capital and blockaded
the Dushanbe TV center on 29 April, demanding an end to the political
rallies, Central TV reported. According to Radio Rossii, the
planned opening of a special session of the Tajik Supreme Soviet
was delayed until President Rakhman Nabiev, whose resignation
is demanded by opposition demonstrators, could meet with the
head of the Muslim Religious Board for Central Asia, who was
reported to be on his way to Dushanbe. The chairman of Tajikistan's
opposition Democratic Party was quoted on Radio Mayak as saying
that Tajikistan could easily become a second Yugoslavia. (Bess
Brown)

FIGHTING IN DNIESTER REGION CONTINUES. ITAR-TASS reported on
29 April that fighting in the breakaway "Dniester Republic" has
not abated. The scene of the latest exchange of gunfire was in
and around the city of Dubossary. The local population is said
to be optimistic that a commission of observers now in the area
will be able to bring the killings to a speedy halt. (Roman Solchanyk)


CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE

BOSNIAN FIGHTING ESCALATES. Radio Sarajevo reports on 29 April
that Mostar is being systematically shelled by the federal army
and charges that in Gorazde federal warplanes have dropped chemical
bombs. The Sarajevo-based Serbian news agency SRNA is running
reports of an alleged massacre of 350 Serbian women, children,
and senior citizens by Muslim and Croatian paramilitary units.
Over the past month the Croatian, Serbian, and Bosnian media
have frequently run reports of supposed massacres involving civilians
of Muslim, Serb and Croat nationality. There is confusion as
well about reports that Bosnia's Interior Ministry ordered civilians
to block all federal military installations to prevent the army
from removing equipment and hardware. Radio Sarajevo read what
it said was a signed ministry order; the Belgrade-based Tanjug
news service reported the story as well. Later in the day, however,
Radio Sarajevo said the Bosnian ministry denies issuing such
an order. In response to a demand that the federal army leave
the republic, acting federal defense minister Gen. Blagoje Adzic
wrote to Bosnian President Alija Izetbegovic on 27 April that
the army would not comply, arguing that the Bosnian demand was
hasty and could trigger an escalation of violence with "unpredictable
consequences." (Milan Andrejevich)

KOSOVO ALBANIANS REPORT ARMY BUILDUP. The Democratic Alliance
of Kosovo, the largest political party in Kosovo, stated on 28
April that federal army personnel and equipment in growing amounts
have been seen in the dominantly Serb town of Kosovo Polje, a
suburb of Pristina. The party reiterated its long-standing fear
that the Serb-dominated federal army is supplying local Serbs
with weapons in preparation for actions against Albanians, who
constitute 90% of Kosovo's population. Radio Croatia carried
the report. DAK announced in mid-March that local and republic
parliamentary elections will be held in Kosovo at the end of
May. Kosovo was declared a republic in October 1991 by Albanian
political leaders after a public referendum earlier had endorsed
Kosovo's independence. Serbia's government said Kosovo's status
as a Serbian province will not change and opposes independence.
(Milan Andrejevich)

JARUZELSKI AND KISZCZAK TO BE INDICTED? Zbigniew Dyka, Polish
prosecutor-general, has asked the Constitutional Tribunal to
consider indicting Generals Wojciech Jaruzelski and Czeslaw Kiszczak
for destroying files containing minutes of Politburo meetings
between 1982 and 1989, Polish and Western media report. Jaruzelski
claims that "only rough drafts were destroyed" and the originals
remain in the archives. If the Constitutional Tribunal accepts
the charges, the case will be referred to the Sejm which has
to decide whether to pass it on for trial before the Tribunal
of State, composed of senior judges who rule on cases involving
top officials. (Roman Stefanowski)

LIST OF SUSPECTED AGENTS PUBLISHED IN CZECHOSLOVAKIA. On 29 April
the Czechoslovak Federal Assembly decided that each deputy would
be given the list of journalists suspected of collaborating with
the former communist secret police (StB). The list was to have
been classified and made available to the deputies for their
own information only, an RFE/RL correspondent reports. A Czech
government spokesman had earlier cautioned that publication of
the names would be illegal. Nonetheless, the names of the 262
Czech journalists, as well as the corresponding list of 114 Slovak
journalists, was published in the Prague daily Telegraf on 30
April. (Peter Matuska)

LITHUANIA JOINS IMF AND WORLD BANK. On 29 April Lithuania became
the first former USSR republic to assume full membership in the
IMF and World Bank, an RFE/RL correspondent in Washington reports.
International Economic Relations Minister Vytenis Aleskaitis
signed the articles of agreement at the US State Department.
Lithuania will pay membership dues of $94.5 million of which
22.7% must be in hard currency. It will need IMF help in introducing
its own currency, the litas, by establishing a stabilization
fund similar to the one promised for the ruble. (Saulius Girnius)


HUNGARIAN DEFENSE BUDGET CUT. According to Acting Defense Ministry
Spokesman Laszlo Tikos, Hungary's 1992 defense budget will be
reduced by a total of 76.9 million forint following an earlier
government decision to pare all ministries' administrative budgets
by 4%, MTI announced on 29 April. While the defense ministry
can absorb the 25.4 million forint cut in its administrative
budget by cutting costs, the 51.5 million cut in the armed forces'
budget came as a surprise and is likely to produce "tensions"
in the financing of the army's operational tasks, Tikos said.
(Alfred Reisch)

HUNGARIAN GOVERNMENT CONSIDERING DEFENSE PLAN. A revised version
of Hungary's security policy concept was approved by the government
and debated by parliament's foreign relations committee, MTI
reported on 29 April. According to Ivan Baba, deputy state secretary
for foreign affairs, Hungary does not seek neutrality and sees
its security policy in the framework of a gradual integration
with Western Europe through full membership in the EC, then in
NATO and the WEU, by the end of the decade. Cooperation with
Czechoslovakia and Poland, the other two members of the "Visegrad
Triangle," is no alternative to Western integration but rather
a means jointly to promote it. The new concept will require a
modernized Hungarian army strong enough to halt an aggressor
of similar strength or to cause intolerable losses to a stronger
assailant, Baba said. (Alfred Reisch)

LITHUANIA DEMANDS HALT TO NEW RUSSIAN TROOPS. On 28 April, after
a meeting of the Lithuanian provisional defense leadership, Chairman
of the Lithuanian Supreme Council Vytautas Landsbergis sent a
telegram to Russian President Yeltsin demanding a halt in the
transfer of new Russian troops to Lithuania, Radio Lithuania
reported on 29 April. Troops have been flown to the military
airports at Kazlu Ruda and Kedainiai, to which access by Lithuanian
officials is barred. Lithuania also prohibited all unauthorized
flights of helicopters over its territory. Parliament press spokesman
Audrius Azubalis noted that Lithuania could cut off the supply
of electricity, communications, and other services it provides
to the military. (Saulius Girnius)

LATVIA SAYS RUSSIA DELAYING TROOP PULLOUT. On 29 April Latvian
Defense Minister Dainis Turlajs told a news conference that no
progress was made in the third round of talks with Russia on
the question of the withdrawal of former USSR troops from Latvia,
Reuters reports. Turlajs said that Latvia wants all former USSR
troops to leave its territory within 18 months, but Russian negotiators
are stalling by alleging that Latvia is mistreating servicemen
and their families. Russia has also refused to set a withdrawal
schedule in similar talks with Lithuania. (Saulius Girnius)

ARENS IN BALTIC STATES. On 29 April Israeli Defense Minister
Moshe Arens arrived in Riga, where he held talks with Foreign
Minister Janis Jurkans, Defense Minister Talavs Jundzis, and
State Minister Janis Dinevics. On 30 April he is scheduled to
participate at a Holocaust memorial ceremony in Riga. He will
travel to Vilnius on 1 May for meetings with Prime Minister Gediminas
Vagnorius, Foreign Affairs Minister Algirdas Saudargas and National
Defense Minister Audrius Butkevicius, Radio Lithuania reports.
(Saulius Girnius)

GALVIN ON POLAND AND NATO. General John Galvin, commander of
NATO forces in Europe, told a press conference in Warsaw on 29
April that "we are not thinking of Poland's membership in NATO
today, but who knows what will happen tomorrow?" According to
PAP, Galvin also said that NATO does not regard Poland "as a
buffer separating the West from the countries of the former Soviet
Union, and has no plans whatever to become involved in case of
a crisis there." Gen. Zdzislaw Stelmaszuk, chief of the Polish
general staff, said that he favors "small but consistent steps"
leading to membership in NATO, which could take five to seven
years. NATO consultants are traveling to Poland next month to
discuss the issue. (Roman Stefanowski)

POLAND AND GEORGIA ESTABLISH DIPLOMATIC RELATIONS. PAP reported
that a Georgian government delegation headed by Deputy Foreign
Minister Mikhail Ukleba arrived in Poland on 28 April for a three-day
official visit to establish diplomatic relations and negotiate
an inter-governmental agreement on commercial and economic cooperation.
Poland's relations with Georgia date from the 17th century, when
the first Georgians settled in Poland and Georgia was seen as
an ally of Poland against the Ottoman Empire. Diplomatic relations
were first established in 1920 but were short-lived because of
the civil war in Georgia and the country's later incorporation
into the Soviet Union. (Roman Stefanowski)

SLOVAK CONSTITUTION LIKELY TO BE PROCLAIMED IN AUGUST. On 29
April Vladimir Meciar, chairman of the Movement for a Democratic
Slovakia (HZDS), said he was sure the party would win a majority
of 97 votes in the Slovak parliament. He said the HZDS would
always be in favor of a declaration of Slovakia's sovereignty.
He emphasized that a Slovak constitution, including a provision
for a president of the Slovak republic, will be proclaimed by
the end of August 1992, CSTK reported. According to recent polls,
the HZDS has over 30% voter support. Parliamentary elections
in the country will take place on 5-6 June 1992. (Peter Matuska)


CZECH RIGHT PARTIES TO COOPERATE. On 29 April the Civic Democratic
Party (ODS) and the Christian Democratic Union-Czechoslovak People's
Party (KDU-CSL) have agreed to work together to coordinate their
election campaigns, CSTK reports. ODS chairman Vaclav Klaus said
both parties have clearly defined their common enemy, "which
is to the left of us . . ., and not only the Communist Party,
but also social democracy, the Liberal Social Union and nationalist
Moravian parties." Klaus added that right-wing parties need to
create a "circle defense." KDU-CSL chairman Josef Lux said, "after
the elections we are ready to work for cooperation with parties
from the center to the right." (Peter Matuska)

ROMANIA'S PRESIDENT SAYS MONARCHY IS NOT A SOLUTION. During a
visit in Birlad on 29 April, President Ion Iliescu said that
restoration of the monarchy would not solve the country's problems.
His comment, reported by Romanian and foreign media, comes the
second day after former King Michael finished a three-day visit
to Romania and said he wanted to work for the establishment of
a constitutional monarchy. (Crisula Stefanescu)

HUNGARIAN FOREIGN MINISTER IN CHINA. Hungarian Foreign Minister
Geza Jeszenszky arrived in China on 28 April for a six-day official
visit aimed at reviving bilateral political and economic ties,
MTI reports. The Hungarian government hopes that the opening
of a Chinese trade center in Budapest in May will boost bilateral
trade, which in the past few years has been stagnating. Both
sides assert that ideological considerations will not affect
relations. Jeszenszky said that a more intensive dialogue with
China is possible because Peking accepted the change of regime
in Hungary. Chinese Prime Minister Li Peng was quoted by Xinhua
as saying that "every sovereign state has the right to choose
its own road to development." (Edith Oltay)

GANEV'S BALKAN INITIATIVES. While no final reports are available
on Foreign Minister Stoyan Ganev's visit to Portugal on 28-29
April, Bulgarian media focused attention on the working lunch
he hosted at the Bulgarian embassy on the first day for Balkan
ambassadors , a follow-up to a similar initiative which he took
recently in Helsinki. Demokratsiya listed as participants the
heads of mission of Romania, new Yugoslavia, Greece, and Turkey
(Albania has no mission in Lisbon). The inclusion of "new Yugoslavia"
would seem to be running against the position of Ganev's host,
Portuguese Foreign Minister Joao de Deus Pinheiro, who, according
to Reuters of 29 April, is calling upon the EC to take no action
on recognizing the new state. (Rada Nikolaev)

BULGARIAN GASOLINE PRICES TO GO UP. Ceiling prices of gasoline
in Bulgaria, officially set every two weeks, have usually fluctuated
only slightly. New prices announced by BTA on 29 April for the
first half of May, however, mark significant increases--14-16%
for gasoline and 18.5% for diesel fuel. A liter of 98-octane
gasoline will now cost 8.00 leva and a liter of diesel 6.40 leva.
The average monthly salary in February was 1,543 leva. (Rada
Nikolaev)

ROMANIA'S POPULATION IS 22.7 MILLION. According to initial results
of the 7 January 1922 census, Romania's population stands at
22,749,000--5.5% higher than the figures for the 1977 census,
Rompres reported on 29 April. The population of Bucharest grew
by 11.6% to 2,349,000 in 15 years. (Crisula Stefanescu) (As of
1200 CET) Compiled by Carla Thorson & Charles Trumbull









(END)



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