Standing, as I do, in the view of God and eternity, I realize that patriotism is not enough. I must have no hatred or bitterness toward anyone. - Edith Cavell 1865-1915 (Spoken to the chaplain who attended her before her execution by firing squad, 12 Oct. 1915.)
RFE/RL Daily Report

No. 82, 29 April 1992





SUCCESSOR STATES TO THE USSR

FIVE COUNTRIES TO SIGN START? During a 28 April press conference
on the eve of his departure for the United States, Ukrainian
President Leonid Kravchuk claimed that all four nuclear states
of the former Soviet Union, and the United States, would be parties
to the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START). He was quoted
by Ukrinform-TASS as saying that the foreign ministers of Belarus,
Kazakhstan, Russia, Ukraine, and the US Secretary of State would
meet and sign a protocol to START "in the immediate future."
Kravchuk said that there would have to be an additional agreement
on the 46 SS-24 missiles in Ukraine--which he claimed were not
covered by the present treaty. (Doug Clarke)

KRAVCHUK SEEKS SECURITY GUARANTEES FROM WEST. President Kravchuk
also announced that he would raise the question of international
guarantees for Ukrainian security when he meets next week with
US President George Bush. As reported by Western agencies on
28 April, Kravchuk said Ukraine needs these guarantees because
some bordering countries, especially "our big neighbor, Russia"
are raising territorial claims. The Ukrainian president denied
that his country resumed the withdrawal of tactical nuclear arms
to Russia under pressure from the US State Department, but he
gave the clearest indication to date that Ukraine harbors fears
of Russian nuclear blackmail against a Ukraine committed to complete
disarmament. Kravchuk was quoted by AP as saying that "by becoming
a non-nuclear power, we significantly weaken our military capability."
(Kathy Mihalisko)

KRAVCHUK'S AGENDA FOR US VISIT. The United States's top diplomatic
representative in Kiev, Jon Gundersen, told a press conference
that the forthcoming talks between the Ukrainian president and
US President George Bush in Washington will last three hours
and will have "an unprecedented character," Radio Ukraine reported
on 28 April. Gundersen said that the talks will cover a wide
range of issues and that a series of important agreements will
be signed, specifically regarding trade, investment, technical
assistance, and diplomatic rights and privileges. (Roman Solchanyk)


KAZAKHSTAN SEEKS STRATEGIC ALLIANCE WITH UNITED STATES. AFP,
quoting Russian TV, reported on 28 April that Kazakh President
Nursultan Nazarbaev has told President Bush that Kazakhstan would
like to conclude a strategic alliance with Washington. The message
to Bush also reportedly contained a pledge that Kazakhstan is
on the road to disarmament and plans to retain only temporarily
the strategic nuclear weapons inherited from the USSR. Kazakhstan
is the only Soviet nuclear successor state whose arms control
measures have not been certified by the US administration to
the US Congress. RFE/RL correspondent Kevin Foley learned from
a White House source on 28 April that Nazarbaev is to meet Bush
on 19 May. (Bess Brown)

BELARUS CLEAN OF TACTICAL NUKES. Belarusian Defense Minister
Pavel Kozlovskii told RIA on 28 April that the last tactical
nuclear weapons on Belarusian territory were transferred to Russia
that day. Last December, the presidents of Belarus, Ukraine,
and Kazakhstan pledged to rid their countries of these weapons
by 1 July 1992. Kazakhstan has previously stated that the transfer
of weapons from its territory was complete. (Doug Clarke)

CHANGES IN RUSSIAN DELEGATION TO FLEET TALKS. Interfax on 28
April reported that Russian state adviser, Sergei Shakhrai, would
not head the Russian delegation at the Russo-Ukrainian talks
on the Black Sea Fleet scheduled to begin in Odessa on 29 April.
Shakhrai, who recently resigned as a Russian deputy prime minister,
had been appointed to head the delegation by President Yeltsin.
The deputy chairman of the Russian parliament, Yurii Yarov, will
replace him. CIS Commander in Chief, Marshal Evgenii Shaposhnikov
was quoted in Nezavisimaya gazeta of 29 April as saying he would
not participate in the talks "since the military's presence at
such talks, especially in Ukraine, currently does not have a
very harmonious effect." The paper also said that the Russian
Foreign Ministry would not be represented. Earlier reports had
indicated that Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev would attend.
(Doug Clarke)

UKRAINIAN DELEGATION APPEALS FOR CALM DURING TALKS. The Ukrainian
delegation to the latest round of talks on the disputed Black
Sea Fleet has issued a statement to political and military organizations
and officials calling on them to refrain from "imprudent statements"
and to allow the negotiations to take place in "a calm, normal
atmosphere." The statement was broadcast on Ukrainian radio and
quoted by AFP on 28 April. (Kathy Mihalisko)

CIS NAVY FIRES OFFICERS LOYAL TO UKRAINE. The "Novosti" newscast
on 28 April announced that Admiral Vladimir Chernavin, the commander
in chief of the CIS Navy, had ordered the dismissal of those
officers of the Black Sea Fleet who had sworn loyalty to Ukraine.
(Doug Clarke)

YELTSIN STARTS 3-DAY NORTHERN TOUR. Russian President Boris Yeltsin
visited the far northern city of Arkhangelsk on 28 April at the
start of a three-day tour of several northern Russian cities.
Russian TV said the purpose of the trip is to find out how the
population is reacting to Russia's economic reforms. Yeltsin
stopped first in Severodvinsk, an industrial area near Arkhangelsk
which is the center of Russia's submarine production. There he
announced that Russia and France will jointly ask the United
States to suspend nuclear weapons testing. Russian TV showed
Yeltsin telling the crowd that his government plans to relax
its reform provisions a little; he said details will be announced
in about a week. Yeltsin's schedule calls for him to watch the
launching of a satellite from Plesetsk cosmodrome in the morning
of 29 April; on 30 April he will visit iron and steel mills in
the city of Cherepovets. (Elizabeth Teague)

ENTIRE RUSSIAN LEADERSHIP OUT OF MOSCOW. The entire top Russian
leadership has left Moscow: President Yeltsin is travelling to
the Northern regions of Russia; Vice President Aleksandr Rutskoi
departed for Israel; the chairman of the Russian parliament,
Ruslan Khasbulatov, is currently in Germany; First Deputy Prime
Minister Egor Gaidar is in the United States for negotiations
with the IMF; and finally, Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev is
in the Middle East. It is not known who has been left in charge
of politics in the Kremlin. Meanwhile, the state secretary, Gennadii
Burbulis, is scheduled to report on changes in the state structure
to a government meeting, according to Radio Rossii on 28 April.
(Alexander Rahr)

YELTSIN DENIES RUSSIA IS UNDER IMF ORDERS. Following the IMF
announcement on the provisional admittance of CIS states, Western
agencies reported Boris Yeltsin as saying on 28 April that Russia
is not "under the direct orders of the IMF." It is not surprising
that he would say this, given that IMF membership must still
be ratified by the Russian parliament, and the provision of Western
aid is still conditional on IMF approval of reform policies.
The Russian government therefore has to cope with resistance
from at least three sources: the diehard traditionalists, the
managers of state enterprises, who want softer financial policies,
and liberal but anti-Gaidar politicians like Grigorii Yavlinsky,
who now complain that no new guidelines have been published (Komsomolskaya
pravda 28 April). (Philip Hanson)

RUSSIAN MEDICAL WORKERS STRIKE EXPANDS. Strikes by Russian medical
workers demanding higher pay and better working conditions continued
into their second week with more than half of Moscow's medical
facilities joining the protest on 27 April, Western and Russian
agencies reported. Moscow ambulance workers postponed their threatened
work stoppage in the hopes that an agreement would be reached,
but thousands of doctors in Moscow began refusing to prescribe
medicine. The strikes, affecting various Russian cities, include
at least 70,000 health care workers, and up to one third of Moscow's
340,000 workers are expected to join this week. ITAR-TASS reported
on 28 April that strikes by both medical workers and teachers
had spread to Yaroslavl, Vladimir, and the Russian Far East Primorsky
region, while doctors in Vladivostok and other Far Eastern regions
were expected to join the protest on 29 April. (Carla Thorson)


ARMS SALES ON RUSSIAN COMMODITY EXCHANGES. ITAR-TASS of 28 April
quotes the weekly, Biznes i banki (Business and Banks), as saying
that a division could now be equipped with the latest weapons,
from ammunition to fighter-bombers by buying from the Novosibirsk
"Sibir-Konversiya" exchange. The purchaser would officially be
required, however, to be licensed to buy. The weekly says that
purchasers are expected soon from the "socialist commonwealth,"
whose military use "Soviet" weapons. Whether that commonwealth
would include Armenia and Azerbaijan, is not specified. (Philip
Hanson)

"ALISA" COMMODITY EXCHANGE UNDER ATTACK. A scathing attack on
the network of commodity exchanges run by the young Moscow millionaire
German Sterligov (called "Alisa" after his dog, who features
in all the exchange's promotional materials) appeared in Rabochaya
tribuna on 24 April. The article charges with heavy sarcasm that
"Alisa" has declared itself a sovereign state, independent of
Russia, "with its own laws, its own army, police, and courts."
(A visit in December 1991 to Alisa's Moscow exchange did indeed
reveal that everything from power stations to brickworks was
being offered for sale on the computer screens of Alisa's brokers.)
(Elizabeth Teague)

FEDOROV WARNS COMMUNIST DIEHARDS. Russian Minister of Justice
Nikolai Fedorov has issued a warning to the Russian Communist
Workers' Party (RCWP) for an alleged violation of Russian law.
At its plenary session on 6 January, the RCWP--probably the largest
and one of the most hardline of the new communist parties that
counts among its leaders the former general, Albert Makashov--decreed
its intention to "appeal to the armed defenders of the Motherland
to support the struggle for workers rights" and promised "to
raise a Red Banner over the Kremlin." The Justice Ministry views
these statements as an appeal for an armed rebellion against
the democratically elected government. On the program, "Bez retushi,"
broadcast on the Russian TV on 28 April, Fedorov explained that
his ministry could, by law, issue only one additional warning
before requesting court action to ban the party. (Julia Wishnevsky)


CONSTITUTIONAL COURT SIDES WITH YELTSIN AGAINST KHASBULATOV.
On 28 April, the Russian Constitutional Court ruled out an attempt
by the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, "to revive the infamous
VAAP"--the USSR Copyright Agency--"Vesti" reported. Established
in 1973, VAAP had a monopoly on all Soviet publications abroad
and had a reputation for excessive taxation, political censorship,
and KGB connections. On 24 February 1992, Yeltsin set up the
"Russian Agency for Intellectual Property" to inherit VAAP's
functions and property, and he appointed the liberal lawyer,
Mikhail Fedotov, as its director. Meanwhile, Ruslan Khasbulatov
created, in the name of the Presidium, the "All-Russian Copyright
Agency" as the sole heir to VAAP with the former KGB General
Viktor Chistyakov in charge. The Constitutional Court ruled that,
according to the Russian Constitution, only the president is
entitled to set up new governmental structures and therefore
Khasbulatov's initiative was illegal. (Julia Wishnevsky)

NINE RUSSIAN STATE COURIERS MURDERED IN KAZAN. Police in Tatarstan's
capital of Kazan said on 28 April that nine Russian government
security guards were murdered overnight by an armed gang who
apparently wanted to steal their weapons. The police officials
were quoted by ITAR-TASS as saying the gang broke into a building
where the officers--six men and three women--were staying. The
armed security guards are used to deliver secret documents and
money between government offices. (Vera Tolz)

PREPARATIONS FOR CRIMEAN REFERENDUM. Crimea's parliamentary chairman,
Nikolai Bagrov, is quoted by Radio Rossii on 28 April as saying
that the proposed referendum in Crimea regarding its state status
can take place inasmuch as all the legal prerequisites for the
referendum were met. In the meantime, Radio Ukraine on 28 April,
citing the Moscow agency "Union Radio," reported that the recently
held founding congress of Crimea's Russian-speaking population
resolved that all the nationalities of the peninsula "belong
to the Russian ethnos." (Roman Solchanyk)

TURKISH CREDITS FOR CENTRAL ASIA. During his 28 April visit to
Bishkek, Turkish Prime Minister Suleyman Demirel promised to
provide around $75 million in export credits to Kyrgyzstan, Western
agencies reported, and offered loans to fund purchases of Turkish
wheat and sugar. Kyrgyz officials have said that only outside
help can rescue the country from economic collapse. The previous
day he signed credit deals in Uzbekistan worth some $500 million.
Demirel was reported to have told Reuters that framework credit
agreements of varying amounts would be signed with the five Central
Asian states and Azerbaijan. (Bess Brown)

SITUATION IN DUSHANBE. Supporters of the Tajik government appealed
at a press conference in Dushanbe on 28 April for the imposition
of presidential rule in Tajikistan in order to end demonstrations
in the capital and other cities, Khovar-TASS reported. Republican
Party Chairman Abdullo Ochilov, an organizer of the progovernment
demonstration protesting concessions to the demonstrators, accused
the opposition of wanting to create an Islamic state and refused
to negotiate with them. Participants in pro- and anti-government
demonstrations now reportedly number 100,000 people. (Bess Brown)




CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE

BOSNIA UPDATE. In Lisbon on 28 April the leaders of the three
ruling ethnic parties in Bosnia-Herzegovina resumed full negotiations
over the future political shape of the multiethnic republic.
EC-mediators are trying to persuade the three rival sides to
agree on a loosely-knit federal state in which Muslims, Serbs,
and Croats would share some common institutions. The main administration
would be divided along ethnic lines so that each community would
govern its own affairs. Brief comments by the negotiators suggest
no major breakthrough yet, but Portuguese Foreign Minister Joao
de Deus Pinheiro told reporters that he does see "a light at
the end of the tunnel." Meanwhile on 28 April, UN Secretary-General
Boutros Ghali told reporters in Paris that a French initiative
to send UN peacekeeping forces to Bosnia-Herzegovina will be
discussed but that the UN would be willing to send in peacekeeping
troops only if the international community provides sufficient
financial and logistical support. In Bihac the three ruling ethnic
parties agreed to begin negotiations on the territorial reorganization
of the region. Despite a cease-fire heavy fighting continued
in several areas of the republic. Radio Sarajevo reports on 29
April that seven people have been killed in the past 24 hours.
(Milan Andrejevich)

REACTIONS TO THE NEW YUGOSLAVIA. Radio Serbia reported on 28
April that numerous countries support the establishment of the
Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY) and pledge recognition shortly.
Belgrade includes China and Russia among the countries that have
extended recognition, but Radio Croatia reports that Russian
foreign ministry spokesman Sergei Yastrzhembsky told reporters
in Moscow on 28 April that his government has only "acknowledged
the right" of Serbia and Montenegro to form an alliance. German
TV on 28 April quotes German foreign minister Hans-Dietrich Genscher
as saying that the new Yugoslavia is not the legal successor
to the old socialist federation. He added that recognition should
not be extended until both republics meet EC conditions respecting
minority rights and existing borders. Croatia said it will not
extend recognition until the FRY recognizes Croatia, withdraws
federal troops from the republic and Bosnia-Herzegovina, and
meets all the conditions for international recognition that were
applied to the other former Yugoslav republics. (Milan Andrejevich)


SERBIAN OPPOSITION TO BOYCOTT FEDERAL ELECTIONS. Vuk Draskovic,
President of the Serbian Renewal Movement (SPO), Serbia's largest
opposition party, told reporters on 28 April that his party will
boycott the federal elections scheduled for late June unless
the current government guarantees press freedom, adopts laws
on political party funding, amnesties those who fled Serbia during
the war in Croatia, disarms all paramilitary groups and allows
a three-month election campaign. Draskovic said his party would
soon form a coalition with the Democratic and Liberal parties
and proclaim a "government and parliament of a democratic Serbia."
Local elections will be held in Serbia on 31 May. According to
the latest opinion polls, the SPO's rating is dropping because
of its perceived inconsistencies on political issues and wavering
public support for the current government dominated by the Socialists
(formerly communists). Radio Belgrade carried the report. (Milan
Andrejevich)

EC TO ASSESS DANUBE PROJECT. On 28 April Czechoslovak Foreign
Minister Jiri Dienstbier presented a letter to the EC in which
he said that his country has approved the formation of a trilateral
commission on the Danube dam project at Gabcikovo-Nagymaros.
The commission will be made up of Czechoslovak and Hungarian
representatives, plus independent foreign experts to be named
by the European Community, CSTK reports. No details were given.
During a meeting with Horst Krenzler, the EC commission's director-general
for external relations, Czechoslovak Deputy Foreign Minister
Zdenko Pirek welcomed Hungary's acceptance of the trilateral
commission first proposed by Czechoslovakia in September 1990.
(Peter Matuska)

FARMERS END STRIKE IN POLAND. After meeting with President Lech
Walesa on 28 April, the Farmers' Trade Union "Self-Defense" ended
its three-week-old sit-in strike at the Ministry of Agriculture
and the Food Industry, PAP reports. The final communique said
that the president's office will set up a Rural and Agricultural
Affairs Council composed of trade unionists, parliamentarians,
and other experts to help in the solving of farmers' problems,
particularly in the realm of finance. (Roman Stefanowski)

CZECHOSLOVAK PARLIAMENT APPROVES 1991 BUDGET SURPLUS ALLOCATION.
On 28 April the Czechoslovak parliament approved a government
proposal for the allocation of the 1991 federal budget surplus
totalling 6.4 billion koruny ($213 million). Of the surplus,
2.2 billion koruny will be used to cover partly last year's deficit
in the budgets of the Czech and the Slovak republics (10.8 billion
and 10.2 billion koruny, respectively), with 1.3 billion koruny
going to the Czech and 934 million koruny to the Slovak republic.
Some 2 billion koruny are designated to cover the insolvency
of the state-owned Czechoslovak Railway Company (CSD), CSTK reports.
(Peter Matuska)

EX-KING MICHAEL WANTS TO RETURN TO ROMANIA. Back in Switzerland
after a three-day visit to Romania, ex-king Michael said he was
overwhelmed by the reception given him by the people and wants
to go back as soon as possible, foreign agencies reported on
28 April. He says he believes Romanians want to restore the monarchy,
and the country needs fresh impetus. Michael said he will work
for the establishment of a constitutional monarchy. (Crisula
Stefanescu)

GALVIN IN POLAND. In Poland on a three-day visit Gen. John Galvin,
commander of NATO forces in Europe, met with Polish parliamentarians,
the prime minister, and leading officials responsible for the
country's security, PAP reported on 28 April. According to Romuald
Szeremietiew, acting defense minister, Galvin promised help in
rebuilding the Polish armed forces to better cooperate with NATO.
Galvin told Jerzy Milewski, chief of the Presidential National
Security Office, that "in the further future Poland will secure
NATO membership" and asserted that Poland is a stabilizing force
in Eastern Europe. Members of the Sejm Defense Commission acquainted
Galvin with the changes taking place in the Polish army and discussed
problems of the Polish armament industry and the withdrawal of
CIS forces from Poland. (Roman Stefanowski)

HUNGARY CALLS FOR NEW SECURITY GUARANTEES. Members of the Hungarian
parliament's foreign policy and defense committees told a delegation
of NATO's Political Committee in Budapest that Hungary and East
Central Europe needed new security guarantees in the changed
international environment, MTI reported on 28 April. Pointing
to the threat to Hungary's security brought about by the war
in former Yugoslavia, the committee members said that East European
countries want to know to whom they could turn in case of a conflict
with their neighbors. Members of the NATO delegation were unanimously
of the opinion that membership in NATO is not a realistic option
for East European countries and that they should turn to European
organizations and institutions for security guarantees. (Edith
Oltay)

ROMANIA, TURKEY SIGN SECURITY ACCORD. Signed in Ankara on 28
April by Romanian Interior Minister Victor Babiuc and his Turkish
counterpart, Ismet Sezgin, the agreement provides Romanian support
for Turkey's struggle against separatist Kurdish rebels. Foreign
agencies report that the two countries will also cooperate in
fighting organized crime as well as illegal trafficking in drugs,
arms, and antiques. (Crisula Stefanescu)

LITHUANIAN MINISTERS IN LONDON. On 25-26 April Lithuanian Foreign
Affairs Minister Algirdas Saudargas and National Defense Minister
Audrius Butkevicius attended the conference "The Future of Europe
in the Post-Communist World" in London, the RFE/RL Lithuanian
Service reports. The Balts were the only representatives of former
USSR republics present. In a meeting with British Foreign Secretary
Douglas Hurd on 27 April, Saudargas discussed the internal situation
in Lithuania and its relations with Russia and Poland, paying
particular attention to the problems of the withdrawal of the
former USSR army. That same day Butkevicius talked with British
Defense Minister Malcolm Rifkind. (Saulius Girnius)

MILITARY VEHICLES BANNED FROM LIEPAJA. Military vehicles will
be banned until 1 May from the Latvian port of Liepaja, where
the CIS has a base, ITAR-TASS reports. The move is a temporary
compromise between Latvian customs officials, who cut off all
road traffic on 25 April, and the base officials. Viktor Kravchenko,
deputy commander of the base, charged, "the local authorities
want the power to go to the base to control warships moored in
the port." The imposition of customs controls at the entrance
to the port was described as a "provocation" by Sergei Zotov,
head Russian negotiator. (Saulius Girnius)

LATVIAN CONCERN OVER LIBYAN SUBMARINE. On 28 April the Latvian
Foreign Ministry presented a diplomatic note to the US embassy
in Riga describing the presence of a Libyan submarine undergoing
repairs in Bolderaja according to a news release by the Latvian
embassy in Washington. The note asks the US to "use its international
influence and leverage to hasten the withdrawal of [Russian]
armed forces from Latvia." The Latvian mission to the UN informed
the Security Council on the matter, noting that it was a violation
of Security Council Resolution 748 prohibiting sales and maintenance
of military equipment to Libya. Noting that it has not been allowed
to inspect the facilities, the Latvian government is requesting
the UN to send a fact-finding team to inspect Russian-controlled
installations in the Baltic States and ascertain if there might
be other military hardware earmarked for Libya. (Saulius Girnius)


ESTONIAN-RUSSIAN BORDER TALKS POSTPONED. On 28 April ITAR-TASS
reported that a meeting of the working groups of Estonian and
Russian delegations in charge of providing essential supplies
for border regions have been postponed at the initiative of the
Estonian side. Estonia asked that the head of the Russian delegation,
St. Petersburg mayor Anatolii Sobchak, be replaced by a professional
diplomat who could be expected to be more given to compromise.
New dates for the talks in St. Petersburg have been tentatively
set for 5-7 May. (Saulius Girnius)

BULGARIAN BUSINESS FORUM IN GENEVA. Prime Minister Filip Dimitrov
is heading a delegation of Bulgarian economic officials and advisers
and private businessmen in Geneva which is participating in what
is described as "the Bulgaria-92 minieconomic forum." It opened
on 27 April and is sponsored by the World Economic Forum in Davos
and the Bulgarian embassy in Bern. Bulgarian media report good
participation by foreign businessmen, and Podkrepa on 29 April
quoted National Bank chairman Todor Valchev as saying the interest
among private business had been amazing. Demokratsiya on 28 April
said that the UN Economic Commission for Europe has agreed to
organize five economic seminars in Bulgaria. The Geneva cantonal
government has also agreed to supply aid in modernizing the Bulgarian
economy. (Rada Nikolaev)

VLAD SENTENCE INCREASED. Romania's Supreme Court has rejected
an appeal for acquittal by former Securitate head Col. Gen. Iulian
Vlad; instead his sentence was increased from 9 to 12 years.
The court also changed the charge against Vlad from "complicity
in genocide" to "complicity in extraordinarily grave murder,"
local and foreign media report. (Crisula Stefanescu)

RULING AGAINST BULGARIAN MUSLIM COUNCIL, MUFTI CONFIRMED. On
28 April the Supreme Court rejected the appeal of the Supreme
Council of Muslims in Bulgaria and of Chief Mufti Nedim Gendzhev
against a ruling of the Directorate on Religious Beliefs at the
Council of Ministers, which last February said the organization
had not been legally registered. BTA said that by the court's
ruling, which is final, both the statutes and the leadership
of the Muslim organization are declared illegitimate. (Rada Nikolaev)


GALINSKI IN POLAND. On his fifth visit to Poland, on 28 April
Heinz Galinski, Chairman of the Jewish Organizations Council
in Germany, discussed Polish-Jewish relations, the custody of
Jewish historical relics in Poland, and preparations for the
50th anniversary of the Warsaw Ghetto uprising with Prime Minister
Olszewski and Foreign Minister Skubiszewski. About 5,000 young
Jews from 32 countries are in Poland to march in memory of the
victims of the Holocaust and participate in other events, Polish
and Western media report. (Roman Stefanowski) Compiled by Carla
Thorson & Charles Trumbull







(END)



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