|One must learn by doing the thing; though you think you know it, you have no certainty until you try. - Sophocles|
No. 78, 23 April 1992
SUCCESSOR STATES TO THE USSR IMF SEES HYPERINFLATION, RECESSION IN FORMER SOVIET ECONOMIC AREA IN 1992. The International Monetary Fund's annual World Economic Outlook report issued on 23 April forecasts disastrous economic developments in the republics of the former Soviet Union. According to Western reports, the IMF anticipates consumer price inflation rates in excess of 1000%, and declines in net material output (the traditional Soviet equivalent of gross national product) of approximately 17.5%, by the end of the year. This comes on the heels of production declines of similar magnitude, as well as 86% inflation, in 1991. Michael Mussa, IMF Research Department director, told Western agencies yesterday that inflation exceeded 400% during the first quarter of 1992 alone. (Ben Slay) CHANGES IN RUSSIAN GOVERNMENT EXPECTED. "Changes in the composition of the Russian government are expected tomorrow," announced "Vesti" on 22 April. Earlier that day, the Russian president met members of the "Industrial Union," a parliamentary faction which consists of factory directors. Yeltsin assured the directors that there would be no "avalanche of privatization" of state-owned military industries in Russia in the near future. Yeltsin said he would appoint three or four ministers to supervise the various industries. (Julia Wishnevsky) TAJIK PARLIAMENT CHAIRMAN RESIGNS. The Tajik parliament deputies taken hostage on 21 April were released unharmed on the morning of 22 April. Meanwhile, parliament Chairman Safarali Kendzhaev resigned "in order to preserve the unity of the nation and prevent bloodshed," and after talks between parliament and opposition representatives, the parliament acceded to the demonstrators' demand to remove censorship regulations and set a date for ratification of a new constitution, ITAR-TASS reported. Tajik President Rakhmon Nabiev signed a decree promising that demonstrators would not be prosecuted for activities before 23 April, the date by which they undertook to disperse. (Liz Fuller) CENTRAL ASIAN, KAZAKH LEADERS MEET. The presidents of Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan began a two-day meeting in Bishkek on 22 April; Tajikistan was represented by a deputy president as President Rakhmon Nabiev was reportedly ill. The agenda covered economic relations and the situation in Afghanistan. A package of agreements including one on a common investment fund and others on pricing policies and border issues were agreed to in principle and are scheduled to be signed today, ITAR-TASS reported. (Liz Fuller) MOLDOVAN PRESIDENT ON "MOSCOW REACTIONARIES'" STRATEGY. Moldovan President Mircea Snegur told a visiting group of French parliamentary deputies that the Dniester conflict is "being directed by reactionaries in Moscow," Moldova Suverana reported on 17 April. Pointing to Russian Vice President Aleksandr Rutskoi's recent inflammatory statements in both eastern Moldova and Ukraine and to statements by other Russian political figures questioning both Moldova's and Ukraine's borders, Snegur said that their strategy in Moldova's Dniester region appears to seek "the creation of a springboard in the rear of Ukrainian forces in the event of a serious conflict between Russia and Ukraine." (Vladimir Socor) SNEGUR ON RELATIONS WITH RUSSIA AND TROOP WITHDRAWAL. Receiving the newly-accredited Canadian Ambassador, Snegur commented that "in contrast to a large part of the Russian parliament, Yeltsin remains a realist" on questions of relations with the newly-independent states. Snegur said that he had just written Yeltsin and cabled Marshal Evgenii Shaposhnikov urging that Russia's 14th Army, which is stationed mostly in eastern Moldova, be either dissolved under Russia's program to reduce military forces or "speedily withdrawn from the territory of Moldova," Moldovapres reported on 22 April. Numerous letters and cables from the Moldovan leadership to Russia's political and military leaders in connection with the Russian insurgency in eastern Moldova in recent months have remained unanswered, however. (Vladimir Socor) "DNIESTER" LEADER ON CONDITIONS FOR SETTLEMENT. In an extensive interview in Nezavisimaya Gazeta of 21 April, the self-styled "Dniester republic" Vice President, Aleksandr Karaman, reiterated said that unless a "Dniester republic" is accepted and recognized in eastern Moldova through Russia's intercession, "there can be no question of putting an end to the conflict." He also ruled out any disarmament of the "Dniester" military forces as part of a cease-fire. The Russian Cossack detachments serve under the command of "Dniester" forces and will only be sent back to Russia if "there will be no longer a need for them." The "Dniester republic" would be prepared to recog-nize Moldova's borders "within the framework of the Moldovan Soviet Socialist Republic." (Vladimir Socor) CRIMEAN PARLIAMENT SETS DATE FOR DECISION ON REFERENDUM. The Presidium of the Crimean parliament has decided to convene a session of parliament on 5 May to decide whether or not a local referendum should be held on the issue of Crimea's secession from Ukraine, Radio Ukraine reported on 22 April. This is heightening tension in the peninsula. Opponents of such a referendum are warning that it could lead to civil war, and, as "Vesti" reported on 22 April, advocates of the referendum--who gathered around 250,000 signatures in support of it--are preparing "anti-Ukrainian demonstrations" stressing that "the Black Sea Fleet, Crimea, and Russia are one." Meanwhile, in Kiev, the Ukrainian parliament has adopted a law delineating powers between Ukraine and the autonomous Crimean republic, Ukrinform-TASS reported on 22 April; this law was also approved by the Crimean parliament recently. (Bohdan Nahaylo) UKRAINE WANTS TO BE A PARTY TO START. Ukrainian officials have repeated their demand that Ukraine should be an equal party to the 1991 Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START), signed by the United States and the Soviet Union. Interfax on 22 April quoted a Ukrainian Foreign Ministry spokesman as saying that Russia's aim to be the only CIS party to the treaty was "unacceptable" to Ukraine. The same day, Ukrainian Defense Minister Konstantin Morozov told a news conference that Ukraine was ready to implement all the START commitments but it insisted on having the status of an "equal side," ITAR-TASS reported. START accountable weapons and facilities in Ukraine include 176 strategic missiles, 2 strategic bomber bases, and a bomber repair plant. (Doug Clarke) NAGORNO-KARABAKH REJECTS PROPOSED DATE FOR NEW PEACE TALKS. Officials in Stepanakert have informed Russian Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev that they cannot attend the planned peace talks with Azerbaijan to be held in Mineralnie Vody on 23-24 April as 24 April is the day on which Armenians commemorate the 1915 genocide, Inter-fax reported on 22 April. Speaking in Paris, Armenian Prime Minister Gagik Arutyunyan claimed that Azerbaijan was concentrating troops on the border of Nagorno-Karabakh, and called for the UN Security Council to discuss the conflict and for the dispatch of UN peacekeeping troops and observers to the region, Western agencies reported on 22 April. (Liz Fuller) LENIN'S 122TH BIRTHDAY. For the first time in many decades, there was no celebration of Lenin's birthday on 22 April. Russian TV marked this day with movies and discussions unmasking the cruelty of the founder of the Soviet state. Both his admirers and opponents met in the Lenin Museum to question historians, in an effort to create an "objective" picture of this controversial figure. Demonstrations by orthodox Leninists were modest; about 3,000 die-hards, shouting abusive remarks about Yeltsin, Gorbachev, the CIA, and Freemasons, gathered in Moscow's Gorky Park, while another 400 or 500 celebrated Lenin's 122th anniversary in his native city of Ulyanovsk (former Simbirsk). (Julia Wishnevsky) PRESS CONFERENCE ON THE RUSSIAN MEDIA. Russian TV on 22 April broadcast reports of a news conference given by Russian Minister of the Mass Media Mikhail Poltoranin, along with the directors of both Russian television channels, Egor Yakovlev and Oleg Poptsov. Poltoranin viewed the outcome of the Congress of People's Deputies as a failure by the reactionary forces to launch an unarmed coup d'etat against the reformist Russian government. According to Poltoranin, despite criticism voiced by some opposition members, the media in Russia would remain free; he singled out the Russian president as the chief champion of free speech. Yakovlev expressed even greater optimism, saying that lawmakers come and go while journalists remain. Poptsov, however, confessed that he was afraid of the upcoming debate in parliament on the performance of the state-owned electronic media. (Julia Wishnevsky) EXECUTIONS DOWN IN RUSSIA. In summer 1991,the Soviet parliament abolished the death penalty for non-violent crimes, but the appropriate changes had not been made in the criminal codes of the various Soviet republics before the USSR ceased to exist. Nonetheless, figures released by Russia's Ministry of Justice show that the number of criminals executed in Russia fell in 1991 for the third successive year (Izvestiya, 10 April 1992). Although the number of those in the Russian Federation found guilty of crimes potentially carrying the death penalty rose from 2,814 in 1989 to 4,977 in 1991, the number of those actually put to death dropped from 93 in 1989 to 59 in 1991. (Elizabeth Teague) MOSCOW GAS PRICES INCREASE 400%. Hard-pressed Muscovites took another jolt on 20 April, when gasoline prices increased dramatically. According to ITAR-TASS, the price for a litre of regular gasoline increased from 1.20 to 6 rubles, while the diesel fuel price increased from .70 to 5 rubles. Although the price increases were limited to Moscow, Russian Energy Minister Alexander Titkin told Interfax last week that price controls on energy would be removed later in the year. While higher gasoline prices are undoubtedly painful for motorists, the price increases still leave Moscow gas prices at only a fraction of world market levels. (Ben Slay) RUSSIAN MINIMUM WAGE TO ALMOST TRIPLE. The Russian parliament voted on 21 April to raise the monthly minimum wage from 342 to 900 rubles per month as of 1 May. While this 163% increase will further fuel the inflationary fires now burning in the Russian economy, ITAR-TASS reported on 22 April that the increase will still leave the lowest paid workers well below the "subsistence-minumum" of 1500 rubles per month. (Ben Slay) UKRAINE APPEALS FOR MORE AID TO OVERCOME CHERNOBYL CONSEQUENCES. The Chernobyl nuclear accident caused considerably more death and illness in Ukraine than either the official figures given at the time or subsequent Western estimates indicated, the Ukrainian minister for the Chernobyl clean-up, Georgy Gotovchits, claimed. At a press conference held in Kiev on 22 April on the eve of the sixth anniversary of the disaster, the minister said that between 6,000 to 8,000 deaths had been attributed to this, the world's worst nuclear accident, Radio Ukraine and Western agencies reported. He appealed for more international help to deal with the consequences. The Ukrainian authorities are due to close the Chernobyl nuclear plant in 1993. (Bohdan Nahaylo) TIGHT UKRAINIAN BUDGET ANNOUNCED. In an attempt to satisfy demands by the IMF for fiscal stringency, Ukrainian Finance Minister Hryhori Piatachenko on 21 April unveiled a proposed state budget with a deficit target of 2% of gross national product for 1992. The Financial Times of 22 April described this target as "ambitious," in part because Kiev exceeded its 1991 deficit limit by a factor of five. According to Piatachenko, the deficit is to be reduced through a combination of lower spending on social programs and enterprise subsidies, as well as higher taxes. Subsidies to state enterprises will still comprise the largest budgetary category (some 25% of total expenditures) followed by military expenditures (16%). The budget must receive parliamentary approval to become law, and the IMF must give its imprimatur prior to granting large-scale aid to Ukraine. (Ben Slay) SPAIN OFFERS UKRAINE CREDITS. Spain is to grant Ukraine a credit line worth $250 million to encourage bilateral trade. The Spanish foreign minister, Francisco Fernandez Ordonez, made the announcement in Madrid on 21 April on the eve of his official visits to Moscow and Kiev, ITAR-TASS reported. (Bohdan Nahaylo) NEW BELARUSIAN DEFENSE MINISTER. Lieutenant General Pavel Kozlovsky has been appointed Belarusian defense minister, ITAR-TASS reported on 22 April. Until now, he was the first deputy commander and chief of staff of the Belarus military district. (Bohdan Nahaylo) APPEAL FROM SOLDIERS' MOTHERS. The "inter-governmental council of soldiers' mothers" issued an appeal to the Russian parliament on 18 April that claimed some 40,000 soldiers have died over the past six years and called for the creation of an independent commission to conduct an investigation into the deaths, ITAR-TASS reported. The appeal chastised military leaders, claiming that they falsely attributed many of these peace-time deaths to suicide or accidents. It also urged that parents of deceased soldiers receive at least 50,000 rubles in compensation, together with a pension, and warned that the group would conduct hunger strikes at the Kremlin walls if its demands were not met. (Stephen Foye) MORE SUICIDES IN THE ARMY? On 16 April the Chairman of the CIS command's Committee for Work with Army Personnel told ITAR-TASS that the suicide rate in the armed forces has risen dramatically since 1989. According to Colonel Aleksandr Zyuskevich, suicides accounted for 1.9% of all causes of death among servicemen in 1989, with the rate rising to 21.9% in 1991 and to 38% in the first quarter of 1992, the highest since the purges of 1937. He said that a conference on the problem was planned for 23 April in Moscow. (Stephen Foye) RUSSIAN ORTHODOX CHURCH ABROAD DENIES LINKS WITH PAMYAT. Nezavisimaya gazeta, which reported in March on a conference organized by a priest of the Free Russian Orthodox Church and "Pamyat" leader Dmitri Vasiliev, has now published a response (8 April) by Bishop Mark of Berlin and Germany of the Russian Orthodox Church abroad. Bishop Mark said in this statement that "the opinion of some priests cannot represent the views of the whole Russian Church." Sobesednik commented on this statement by saying that obviously hierarchs and clergy born and raised abroad comprehend better than some Moscow priests with whom one should and should not deal in Russia. (Oxana Antic) CARDINAL HUME TO VISIT RUSSIA. The Observer reported on 19 April that Cardinal Basil Hume of Westminster would travel to Moscow and St. Petersburg this week. The newspaper indicated that the cardinal would make an attempt to improve strained Orthodox-Roman Catholic relations. (Oxana Antic) RUSSIAN STUDENTS VISIT "MOONY" COURSES. Three female students described in Sobesednik no. 15, a two-week course conducted by followers of Reverend Moon in the Crimea. The young women criticized the seminar for lack of spontaneity, the polished routine of the instructors, and fanaticism. (Oxana Antic) CORRECTION: In "Members of Russian Defense Commission" published in the Daily Report of 22 April, the number of commission members holding the rank of Col. Gen. or above is incorrectly stated. In fact, 17 members hold the rank of Col. Gen.or above, while all uniformed members of the commission hold a rank of at least Maj.Gen. (Stephen Foye) CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE "DRAMATIC" ESCALATION OF FIGHTING IN SARAJEVO. This was Austrian TV's description of the combat in the Bosnia capital on 22 April. The broadcast said it was the heaviest fighting Sarajevo had seen to date, with most of the action concentrated in the southern part of town near the airport and the suburb of Ilidza on the road to Mostar. Radio Sarajevo announced that the Bosnian authorities had begun to reorganize the republic's government, with priority going to clearing the roadblocks that have strangled economic activity. The 23 April Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung said that the Territorial Defense Forces, loyal to the elected authorities, have issued a call to arms in the face of Serbian aggression. (Patrick Moore) MORE CALLS FOR INTERNATIONAL ACTION IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA. Austrian TV reported on 22 April that Chancellor Franz Vranitzky called for the UN and the EC to start dealing directly with the Serbian-dominated army instead of with politicians, since it appears that the army is the real power in Bosnia-Herzegovina. The military has extensive properties, factories, and other installations in the republic and is unlikely to give them up easily. Elsewhere, sources as different as Austrian President Kurt Waldheim and New York Times editorial of 23 April pointed out that the international community's response to Serbian aggression in Bosnia is pitifully inadequate compared to its reaction to Saddam's seizure of Kuwait, even though the principle involved is the same. The Times wondered if the responses would have been different if Bosnia had oil. (Patrick Moore) DEFENSE MINISTER TO RESIGN? According to a BTA report on 22 April Prime Minister Filip Dimitrov asked Defense Minister Dimitar Ludzhev to resign from his post. BTA said the information was confirmed by parliamentary sources. However, on 23 April Trud quoted Ludzhev as saying in a phone conversation that he would not resign "because they want to remove me for having my own opinions and for not letting the army to be used to suppressing public protests." (Rada Nikolaev) NATO OFFICIAL VISITS BULGARIA. The report about a possible resignation of Bulgaria's Defense Minister coincided with the arrival on 22 April of Admiral Jeremy "Mike" Boorda, commander of NATO's southern flank, on an official visit to the country. BTA said the visit is in fulfillment of the London declaration of 1990 and the Rome declaration of 1991 of the NATO Council on contacts with military authorities of the former socialist countries. It said it is a follow-up of the visit last December of General Dieter Klaus, Deputy Commander-in-Chief of NATO's forces in Europe. (Rada Nikolaev) SOCIALIST PARTY ON THE MOSLEM GROUP. Jean Videnov, Chairman of the Bulgarian Socialist Party (BSP) which had lodged a suit contesting the legal status of the Movement for Rights and Freedoms (MRF), a mainly Moslem political party, said in an interview with Bulgarian Radio on 22 April that the BSP recognizes the ruling of the Constitutional Court that granted legality to the MRF but its attitude to the Moslem group will be determined by the latter's behavior in the parliament. (Rada Nikolaev) CZECHOSLOVAK-GERMAN TREATY RATIFIED. The Czechoslovak parliament ratified on 22 April a Czechoslovak-German friendship treaty by the vote of 144 out of 226 deputies present. Western agencies reported that some protesters demonstrated against the ratification outside the parliament building. Czechoslovak President Vaclav Havel and German Chancellor Helmut Kohl signed the treaty in February 27. German Bundestag will vote on ratification next month. The treaty recognizes existing Czechoslovak-German border and sets out conditions for bilateral economic and cultural ties. It was criticized by smaller parties at both ends of the political spectrum in Czechoslovakia, for allowing too large a role for German capital in Czechoslovakia's economy, and for no provisions for German wartime reparations. (Barbara Kroulik) US COMPANY BUYS INTO CZECH CIGARETTE INDUSTRY. US cigarette maker Philip Morris is to acquire 30% of the Czech cigarette manufacturer Tabak Kutna Hora at a price of $104 million. A Prague economic daily Hospodarske noviny on 22 April quotes Czech Deputy Premier Jan Strasky as saying Philip Morris has committed itself to invest a further $140 million to update Kutna Hora's equipment. The Czech government will maintain 35% of the stock, with 27% of stock to be distributed to the public under the coupon privatization plan. The deal is subject to the government's approval. (Barbara Kroulik) CZECH GOVERNMENT TO PUBLISH STB NAMES? The Czech government decided to ask the federal parliament to publish the names of thousands of former agents and senior officials of the secret state police (STB). Federal Interior Ministry spokesman Martin Fendrych told CSTK on 22 April that the government has a list of about 90,000 names of former agents and high officials of the STB. (Barbara Kroulik) MERI MOVES ACROSS THE BAY. Former Foreign Minister Lennart Meri presented his credentials to Finnish President Mauno Koivisto this morning (23 April), the RFE/RL Estonian Service reports. Meri was named Ambassador to Finland after he left the Foreign Ministry last month.(Riina Kionka) NEW COMMISSION RESPONDS TO NARVA. In response to demands from Narva energy workers, the Estonian Supreme Council on 21 April established a new commission to deal with the "Problems of Legal Status among Non-Citizens," BNS reported the next day. The joint government-parliamentary commission, headed by Deputy Speaker Marju Lauristin, will take up the citizenship and economic concerns that prompted the Narva workers to threaten a strike for today (23 April). (Riina Kionka) RUSSIAN CITIZENSHIP POPULAR IN ESTONIA. The Russian Embassy in Tallinn has already received around 8000 applications for Russian citizenship, according to Russian Federation representative in Estonia Oleg Popovich. Popovich named the figure when he told BNS on 22 April that Russia would open a consulate in the predominantly Russian-speaking city of Narva on 28 April. There are some 475,000 ethnic Russians--just over 30% of Estonia's total population--currently living in Estonia. (Riina Kionka) HUNGARIAN AND SLOVAK FOREIGN MINISTERS MEET. Hungarian Foreign Minister Geza Jeszenszky and his Slovak counterpart Pavol Demes held talks on 22 April in Budapest on international issues and bilateral economic and cultural relations, MTI reported. Jeszenszky stressed the importance of a dialogue with Slovakia where some 600,000 ethnic Hungarians live, and expressed satisfaction that issues such as the education of the Hungarian minority and the need to open new border crossings could now be discussed freely. Demes said that Slovakia's nationality policy conformed to European norms. The joint Gabcikovo-Nagymaros hydroelectric power project, a major bone of contention, was not discussed. (Edith Oltay) HUNGARIAN DEMOCRATIC FORUM ON TOEKES. In a statement issued on 22 April the presidium of the Hungarian Democratic Forum, Hungary's largest governing party, protested over continuing attacks in the Romanian media and parliament against the ethnic Hungarian Reformed Bishop Laszlo Toekes. Recalling that Tokes sparked the 1989 uprising against Ceausescu, the presidium said that the attacks were directed against a man who symbolized the solidarity of the Romanian and Hungarian peoples, and were conscious attempts to damage relations between the two peoples. (Edith Oltay) LATVIA OPENS CONSULATE IN ISRAEL. On 22 April the Israeli foreign ministry announced that Latvia had opened a consulate in Tel Aviv, Western agencies report. It is thus the first of the Baltic States to open a diplomatic mission in Isreal, which has also established formal diplomatic relations with Russia, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, Uzbekhistan, Kyrgystan, and Tajikistan. (Saulius Girnius) LANDSBERGIS IN FRANCE. On 23 April Lithuanian Supreme Council Chairman Vytautas Landsbergis will return to Vilnius after a three day visit to Paris during which he and French President Francois Mitterrand signed an investments' protection agreement to help promote French investments in Lithuania, Radio Lithuania reports. On 22 April he spoke at the opening session of the East-West conference "Whither Eastern Europe" at the Sorbonne, strongly urging the immediate removal of former Soviet troops from his country. He discussed Lithuania's economic problems with Mitterrand and French Foreign Minister Roland Dumas in an hour long meeting and talked with other government officials and parliamentarians. Presidential aide Pierre Morel announced that Mitterrand will visit Lithuania in mid-May to sign a friendship and cooperation treaty. (Saulius Girnius) LITHUANIAN CURRENCY THIS YEAR. On 22 April Lithuanian Prime Minister Gediminas Vagnorius sent a letter to IMF Managing Director Michel Camdessus stating that Lithuania plans to introduce its own currency, the litas, in the second half of this year, Reuters reports. Vagnorius wrote that the Lithuanian government supported the IMF's proposals for developing a program to stabilize the country's economy. The program prepared by IMF experts, who are visiting Lithuania, should be ready in June. Lithuania is one of 14 former USSR republics whose applications to join the IMF are expected to be approved at next week's semi-annual meeting of the IMF and World Bank in Washington. (Saulius Girnius) COALITION BID FAILS IN POLAND. After six weeks of negotiations, involving ten post-Solidarity political parties, attempts to broaden the government coalition had failed, Polish and Western media reported. The talks broke down when, following a five-hour meeting in Warsaw on 22 April, Prime Minister Jan Olszewski refused to redistribute cabinet seats in accordance with each party's parliamentary strength. Olszewski later told reporters that a total reshuffle "would mean breaking the continuity which no government can afford." An agreement on forming a coalition of all those parties was regarded as a way to ensure acceptance by the Sejm of an austerity budget, which the government presented to the Sejm on 3 April. (Roman Stefanowski) KUWAIT'S INTEREST IN POLAND INCREASES. Polish Deputy Foreign Minister Jan Majewski told PAP on 22 April that the 1992 trade turnover between Kuwait and Poland may equal or even exceed the pre-Gulf War level. Kuwait businessmen were said to have been interested in joint-ventures, in investments in the petro-chemical industries, and the possibilities for opening gasoline stations in Poland. Majewski also announced a visit in June of the Kuwait trade delegation with "a big group of businessmen and persons in charge of the government's foreign investments." (Roman Stefanowski) [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Carla Thorson & Jan de Weydenthal The RFE/RL Daily Report is produced by the RFE/RL Research Institute (a division of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty Inc.) in Munich, Germany, with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available Monday through Friday, except holidays, at approximately 0800 US Eastern Time (1400 Central European Time) by fax, post, or e-mail. The report is also posted daily on the SOVSET computer network. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: In USA: Mr. Jon Lodeesen or Mr. Brian Reed RFE/RL, Inc., 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036. Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6900 fax: (202) 457-6992 or -202-828-8783; or in Europe: Mr. David L. Troyanek or Ms. Helga Hofer Publications Department, RFE/RL Research Institute Oettingenstrasse 67 8000 Munich 22 Telephone: (-49 89) 2102-2631 or -2642 fax: (-49 89) 2102-2648
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