No passion so effectually robs the mind of all its powers of acting and reasoning as fear. - Edmund Burke
RFE/RL Daily Report

No. 70, 10 April 1992





SUCCESSOR STATES TO THE USSR

PARTIAL VICTORY FOR YELTSIN AT CONGRESS. The Drafting Committee
of the Congress of People's Deputies has suggested a compromise
on the heatedly debated issue of President Boris Yeltsin's powers,
ITAR-TASS reported on 9 April. The committee recommended withdrawing
the proposal to strip Yeltsin of his special powers but, at the
same time, called for Yeltsin's resignation as prime minister.
The committee decided that Yeltsin should still be able to appoint
ministers and rule by decree but should choose another candidate
for the post of prime minister. The committee's proposals can
be overruled by the Congress, however. (Alexander Rahr)

YELTSIN MAY CONDUCT REFERENDUM. If the Congress of People's Deputies
continues to paralyze reform, President Yeltsin will conduct
a nationwide referendum on the new constitution and ask the public
for a vote of confidence in the president, according to Izvestiya
on 9 April. " Vesti" also quoted Yeltsin's advisor, Galina Starovoitova,
as saying that Yeltsin may put forward the question of dissolving
the Congress, but she later denied having said that. Meanwhile,
the head of the Russian Union of Industrialists and Businessmen,
Arkadii Volsky--who is in line for the post of prime minister--called
for the inclusion of professionals into the government. (Alexander
Rahr)

GAIDAR GIVES EMPASSIONED DEFENSE OF GOVERNMENT. Speaking to the
Congress on 9 April, Egor Gaidar, the architect of Russia's economic
reform policy, strongly defended the government's policies in
the first quarter of 1992, according to Radio Rossii. Gaidar
said that some deputies were involved in a disinformation campaign
about the state of Russia's economic affairs. He said that the
first quarter budget deficit was only 1.5% of GNP and that foreign
trade net income had come in at 8 billion rubles as planned.
He attempted to link the members of the government and the deputies
together via a common bond of pain over Russia's economic crisis.
(John Tedstrom)

GAIDAR GIVES MIXED VIEW OF FUTURE. In the same speech, Gaidar
noted that the government's budgetary austerity program must
be continued, though he seemed to argue for increased social
spending at the same time. He hinted that to do so there would
be no room for a reduction in tax rates, a policy many deputies
have been calling for. Likewise he said the government was in
agreement with those who were calling for a strengthening of
management over state-owned property, especially in industry.
He also said that he agreed with criticisms that the government's
policies had taken an "all-Russia" perspective and had failed
to address regional concerns, and that a more regionally-oriented
approach would be pursued in future. Gaidar presented a picture
of a decidedly mixed economy, with a growing private sector (mostly
small, new businesses, presumably) with a significant measure
of state planning in industry for the foreseeable future. This
represents a small, but noticeable step backwards from the bolder
policy he outlined earlier this year. (John Tedstrom)

DEMOCRATS FLEE THE YELTSIN CAMP. Observers viewing the live broadcasts
of the Congress of People's Deputies have noted how many Russian
deputies who had supported Yeltsin during previous Congresses
have now defected to the opposition. Reasons for these defections
vary. Many deputies disapprove of the dissolution of the USSR,
the establishment the CIS, and the way it was done. Others, among
them leader of the "Radical Democrats" faction Mikhail Chelnokov,
disapprove of the government's "shock therapy" and claim that
alternative market-oriented reforms would not have inflicted
such hardship on the population. Yet another group, including
a founder of the "Democratic Russia" movement, historian Yurii
Afanasev, allege that the new Russian leaders are not real democrats.
(Julia Wishnevsky)

PRESIDENTS SUSPEND BLACK SEA FLEET DECREES. Presidents Yeltsin
and Kravchuk agreed on 9 April to suspend their conflicting decrees
on jurisdiction over the former Soviet Black Sea Fleet and let
a joint parliamentary commission settle the dispute. Kravchuk
was shown on the "Novosti" newscast that evening saying that
the commission would start its work "immediately." ITAR-TASS
reported on the Sevastopol news conference held by Admiral Igor
Kasatonov and Vasyl Durdinets, heading the Ukrainian delegation
that had flown to the Crimea to implement Kravchuk's decree.
Durdinets said that the two-day talks had been "fruitful." Nikolai
Bagrov, the chairman of the Crimean parliament, also spoke at
the news conference. He said that a representative of the Crimea
would participate in the future negotiations. (Doug Clarke)

KRAVCHUK ON THE CRIMEAN QUESTION. Ukrainian President Leonid
Kravchuk told parliament on 8 April that agreements with Russia
are not being implemented, Ukrinform-TASS reported. Documents
signed with Russia say one thing and are then followed by statements
from the Russian leadership to the contrary, Kravchuk maintained.
A case in point, he said, were the recent statements by Russian
Vice-president Aleksandr Rutskoi during his visit to Sevastopol,
where he called for the violation of Ukraine's territorial integrity
and, as Kravchuk claimed, insulted an independent state and its
policies. (Roman Solchanyk)

CRIMEAN NEGOTIATIONS. A delegation of Ukrainian parliamentarians
and government representatives is in Simferopol to discuss economic
and social issues with the Crimean leadership, Radio Mayak reported
on 9 April. The delegation, led by First Deputy Prime Minister
Kostyantyn Masyk, hopes to work out a package of legislation
within the framework of the agreement delineating power between
the Crimea and Ukraine. (Roman Solchanyk)

UKRAINIAN PARLIAMENT BACKS SUSPENSION OF NUKE WITHDRAWAL. On
9 April, the Ukrainian parliament ratified a decision, announced
last month by President Leonid Kravchuk, to suspend the transfer
of tactical nuclear weapons to Russia, an operation that was
due to be completed by 1 July. According to an Ukrinform-TASS
report, parliament resolved that removal of the weapons is "inexpedient"
until a mechanism of international control is in place to ensure
their destruction. The resolution called on the Cabinet of Ministers
to undertake measures to guarantee Ukraine's "technical control
over the non-use of the nuclear arsenal on its territory" and
recommended that President Kravchuk discuss problems associated
with the elimination of nuclear weapons with the world's nuclear
powers. The parliament also reiterated Ukraine's intention to
sign the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty. (Kathy Mihalisko)

NATO EXPRESSES CONCERN. Shortly before the Ukrainian parliament
voted to endorse the suspension of the tactical weapons withdrawal,
NATO headquarters in Brussels released a statement urging Ukraine
to meet the original 1 July deadline, according to Western agencies
on 9 April. It was also reported that Ukraine has pulled out
of a meeting between NATO military chiefs of staff and their
former Warsaw pact counterparts scheduled for 10 April. Kazakhstan,
Kyrgyzstan, Moldova and Uzbekistan also will be absent. (Kathy
Mihalisko)

UKRAINE KEEPS OUT CIS AIR FORCE COMMANDERS. Ukrainian air traffic
controllers denied requests by the commanders of CIS long-range
and military transport aviation to visit some of their subordinate
units in Ukraine on 9 April. Interfax reported that the Ukrainians
explained that Ukrainian Defense Minister Konstantin Morozov
had issued a ban on all flights to Ukraine by CIS Air Force generals.
(Doug Clarke)

LIBERALS HIT RUSSIAN DEFENSE MINISTRY PLANS. The chairman of
"Soldiers for Democracy," Colonel Vladimir Smirnov, told ITAR-TASS
on 8 April that the commission named to create a Russian defense
ministry was incapable of effectively carrying out that task
because it is dominated by representatives of the old defense
establishment. On 9 April an expanded sitting of the coordinating
council of the "Soldiers for Democracy" organization was held
that included representatives from "Shchit" and other progressive
groups, "Vesti" reported. The group sent a recommendation to
Yeltsin that experts from outside the old defense establishment
be included on the Defense Ministry commission. Yeltsin aide,
Galina Starovoitova, told the gathering that she would quit the
commission if such personnel changes were not made, according
to Radio Rossii. (Stephen Foye)

BELARUS STILL IN SEARCH OF DEFENSE MINISTER. Belarusian Radio
reported on 7 April that the parliamentary commission on national
security and defense questions is considering Lieutenant-General
Alyaksandr Lazouski, the chief of staff of the Belarusian Military
District, as a candidate for the post of Belarusian defense minister.
Yet few believe that the parliament will find him suitable, according
to the report, due to broad support for appointing a civilian
to the position--a move that "would meet with a positive international
response" and end the bickering among generals over who in the
military should receive the honor. (Kathy Mihalisko)

MOLDOVAN SECURITY COUNCIL CRITICIZES RUSSIAN CONGRESS RESOLUTION.
The Supreme Security Council of Moldova, meeting on 9 April,
criticized the Russian Congress of People's Deputies' resolution
on the Dniester question as gross interference in the internal
affairs of Moldova and a violation of the principles and norms
of the UN Charter, ITAR-TASS reported. It called for more energetic
measures involving international agencies in "unmasking before
the world public, those who are really violating human rights
on the left bank of the Dniester." Meanwhile, violations of the
ceasefire are continuing, according to both sides. In a radio
interview, Moldovan Prime Minister Valeriu Muravschi said the
ceasefire agreement was weak because it did not elaborate plans
for disarming the both sides in the conflict. (Ann Sheehy)

RUSSIAN PRICE AND WAGE HIKES IN APRIL. In an interview with Izvestiya
on 7 April, quoted by ITAR-TASS, Russian Deputy Prime Minister
Aleksandr Shokhin predicted that prices in the Federation would
rise by 50-70%. (This is apparently without the expected increase
in fuel and energy prices, which has been put off until June).
To offset the price hikes, Shokhin reckoned that the government
should boost incomes by 35-52%. Partial indexation on this scale
would cost between 26 billion and 39 billion rubles in April.
Average pensions will rise to 900-1,115 rubles, education sector
salaries to 2,090-2,360 rubles, health service pay to 2,260-2,550
rubles, and pay in administrative bodies will rise to 2,880-3,255
rubles. (Keith Bush)

AMMUNITION DUMP EXPLODES NEAR EREVAN. A CIS Seventh Army ammunition
dump in Abovyan, 15 km north-east of the Armenian capital, Erevan,
exploded in the early morning hours of 9 April. Thousands of
nearby residents were evacuated, and no one was killed. Armenian
Prime Minister Gagik Arutyunyan told local radio late that afternoon
that the resulting fire was under control and subsiding, ITAR-TASS
reported. The cause of the blaze is unclear. Arutyunyan attributed
it to an accident or technical problems; CIS military spokesmen
claim it was the result of sabotage by Armenian militants, according
to Radio Moscow. (Liz Fuller)

TBILISI MEMORIAL RALLY TURNS INTO ANTI-GOVERNMENT DEMONSTRATION.
Following a rally in Tbilisi on 9 April to commemorate the third
anniversary of the killing of peaceful demonstrators by Soviet
troops in Tbilisi, some 2,000 people marched to the Council of
Ministers building and called for the resignation of the ruling
State Council and the withdrawal of all CIS troops from Georgia,
ITAR-TASS reported. (Liz Fuller)

TURKMENISTAN ESTABLISHES TIES WITH RUSSIA. Russian Foreign Minister
Andrei Kozyrev and his Turkmen counterpart Avdy Kuliev signed
an agreement establishing diplomatic relations between the two
countries on 8 April, ITAR-TASS reported. The two foreign ministers
also signed a statement of support for the UN peace plan in Afghanistan.
After the talks in Ashkhabad, Kozyrev went to Dushanbe for similar
discussions. (Bess Brown)

TAJIK--RUSSIAN RELATIONS. The Russian and Tajik foreign ministers,
Andrei Kozyrev and Lakim Kayumov, signed an agreement on 9 April
establishing diplomatic relations between the two states, ITAR-TASS
reported. The same day, ITAR-TASS summarized a Pravda interview
with Tajik President Rakhman Nabiev in which he rejected both
communism and capitalism for Tajikistan and declared that the
country would create its own secular and law-based democratic
state, and intends to follow a policy of nonalignment in its
foreign relations. (Bess Brown)

RUSSIAN COORDINATING COMMISSION ON PROBLEMS OF CONFESSIONS. ITAR-TASS
reported on 7 April that the Russian Federation has formed a
coordinating commission for problems of confessions within the
Russian government. Aleksandr Shokhin was appointed chairman
of the new commission. The commission's tasks are the regulation
of problems connected with religious organizations, and the coordination
of the Russian government's relations with religious organizations.
(Oxana Antic)





EASTERN EUROPE





CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE



CRISIS IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA INTENSIFIES. International media
reported on 9 April that Zvornik on the Serbian border has fallen
to Serbian irregulars backed by the federal army. Muslim refugees
fled, and a high Muslim official told the 10 April New York Times
that the Serbs are trying to link up ethnically Serbian enclaves
by pushing out the Muslims who live between. Meanwhile, verbal
exchanges between the republic's civilian leaders and the federal
military have sharpened. Federal Defense Minister Gen. Blagoje
Adzic, a Serbian hard-liner, said that Bosnia-Herzegovina's declaration
of independence has sent the country "knocking at the gates of
hell," the 10 April Los Angeles Times reports. The BBC quotes
the federal air force commander as threatening to intervene in
that republic if alleged attacks on military installations do
not stop. Radio Sarajevo reports that the federal military commander
in the republic called the civilian government's actions to date
"unconstitutional and illegal." (Patrick Moore)

A WIDENING FIELD OF CONFLICT? The 8 April Die Presse said that
civil war was inevitable in Bosnia-Herzegovina because of the
depth of mutual hatred and desire for revenge for past injustices
in a culture marked by intolerance. The commentary added that
international recognition of the republic is consequently irrelevant
to the question of war or peace and that it would be difficult
to imagine where UN forces could be effectively stationed in
such an ethnically mixed area. The 31 March issue of Danas quoted
Kosovo Albanian leader Ibrahim Rugova as pointing to the strategic
link between Bosnia-Herzegovina, the Sanjak, and Kosovo as crisis
centers, and noting that civil war in Bosnia-Herzegovina would
radically alter the situation in Kosovo. On 8 April Vjesnik reported
growing fear among the Sanjak's Muslims for their safety in the
face of events in Bosnia-Herzegovina and of increased Serbian
and Montenegrin military activity in the Sanjak itself. (Patrick
Moore)

EAST EUROPEAN RECOGNITION FOR BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA. On 9 April
Hungary, Czechoslovakia, and Poland recognized the independence
of Bosnia-Herzegovina, and decided to establish diplomatic relations
with it, MTI and CSTK report. A government spokesman said that
Hungary was convinced that the recognition would have the effect
of reducing armed conflict in the former Yugoslavia. Hungarian
Foreign Minister Geza Jeszenszky told the daily Uj Magyarorszag
that "everything indicates that extremist elements from outside
are terrorizing the peaceful population, including the Serbs
living in [Bosnia-Herzegovina]." Jeszenszky also announced that
Hungary will open an embassy in Slovenia this month. A Czechoslovak
Foreign Ministry statement said that country is ready to begin
talks on establishing bilateral ties with Bosnia-Herzegovina
as soon as possible. (Edith Oltay & Barbara Kroulik)

UN FORCES ON THE MOVE. On 9 and 10 April the Belgian contingent
of the UN peace-keeping forces crossed Hungary by rail, MTI reports.
In this, the first authorized military transit across the country,
226 military personnel and 162 military vehicles entered Hungary
from Austria at Hegyeshalom and exited at Kelebia, at the Yugoslav
border. A group of 160 Czechoslovak troops leaves for Yugoslavia
on 10 April as part of the UN mission. They will take up positions
in Croatia on 12 April. Two more groups will leave tomorrow,
CSTK reports.(Alfred Reisch & Barbara Kroulik)

PARYS EPIC CONTINUES. Polish Prime Minister Jan Olszewski has
set up a special commission, headed by his chief of staff Wojciech
Wlodarczyk, "to determine the reasons and circumstances for Defense
Minister Jan Parys making his remarks," Polish and Western media
reported. Olszewski told American journalists on 9 April that
he interpreted Parys's statement about attempts of politicians
to draw the military into schemes undermining democracy as "a
warning." The conflict surrounding the Parys affair, Olszewski
added, "involves a struggle among the president, the government,
and parliament for leadership of the Polish army." Discussing
the affair in the Sejm National Defense Commission, acting Defense
Minister Romuald Szeremietiew confirmed that Parys's views are
those of the ministry. "I have full confidence in Parys," he
continued, "but the ministry is not taking responsibility for
any text except that published in the army's official paper,
Polska zbrojna, of 7 April." (Roman Stefanowski)

IS WALESA PREPARING MARTIAL LAW? Commenting on allegations in
Nowy swiat that documents on martial law are being prepared in
Poland, Jerzy Milewski, chief of the National Security Office,
admitted on 9 April that "such a proposal was discussed at the
NCO consultative seminar." According to PAP, Milewski said that
apart from Ministry of Defense experts, specialists from other
ministries are participating in the preparation of martial law
documentation but, said Milewski, "it is a lie that this document
is being prepared in secret." Nowy swiat in its issue of 9 April
claimed that the martial law documentation is being prepared
in secret from public opinion and the media, and without the
knowledge of the Sejm, the Senate and the government. (Roman
Stefanowski)

PRUNSKIENE--A KGB COLLABORATOR? A Lithuanian Supreme Council
committee has been set up to investigate allegations that former
prime minister Kazimiera Prunskiene knowingly collaborated with
the KGB. Prunskiene, who is currently a Supreme Council deputy,
has previously acknowledged that she had contact with the KGB,
but said she had been coerced into doing so and then had only
provided accounts of her trips abroad, Western agencies and Interfax
reported on 9 April. (Dzintra Bungs)

BALTIC SEA CLEANUP PROGRAM ENDORSED. On 9 April states in Scandinavia,
Eastern Europe, the CIS, and the European Community signed an
agreement in Helsinki to work together on a program to clean
up the heavily polluted Baltic Sea, Western agencies report.
The program, costing about $22.5 billion dollars, will take 20
years to complete. The Baltic Sea was used as a midsea dump for
toxic waste before 1974, when an international treaty stopped
the practice. However, Baltic waters are still being polluted
by untreated sewage, industrial wastes, and pollutants coming
via rivers from central Europe. (Dzintra Bungs)

TALLINN'S NEW MAYOR. Former Minister of Industry and Energy Jaak
Tamm has been elected mayor of Tallinn, Rahva Haal reports on
10 April. Tamm is a leader in the Coalition Party, a small group
of powerful former ministers in the Savisaar government. He replaces
Hardo Aasmae, who lost a no-confidence vote in the city council
shortly after his long-time sponsor, former Prime Minister Edgar
Savisaar, was forced out of office. (Riina Kionka)

BUCHAREST MAYOR TO VISIT THE USA. Local media reported on 9 April
that Crin Halaicu and a team of experts will travel to the United
States next week for a working visit. Halaicu, a member of the
opposition National Liberal Party, is the first noncommunist
to be elected to that post since 1948. He will meet officials
in Washington, Atlanta, San Francisco, Las Vegas, and Philadelphia
in order to consider ways to modernize Romania's capital. (Mihai
Sturdza)

ROMANIA'S DEFENSE MINISTER ON MISSING ARCHIVES. Lt. Gen. Nicolae
Spiroiu told a press conference on 9 April that 19,000 files
from the secret police and the former Communist Party were smuggled
out of the country after the December 1989 revolution, and 39,000
were stolen. The army is preparing to transfer 100,000 files
to the state archives. More than 51,000 political files have
been handed over to the prosecutor general, 81,205 to the Justice
Ministry, and 35,305 to the Romanian Intelligence Service. Spiroiu
added that releasing this information to the public could cause
problems and that the law forbids public access for 30 years.
(Mihai Sturdza)

INTERNATIONAL INTELLIGENCE CONFERENCE IN SOFIA. On 9 April officials
from 23 countries in the East and West began a conference to
discuss intelligence under democracy. It is sponsored by the
Consultative Council on National Security at the Bulgarian Presidency
and the Washington-based Center for Democracy. President Zhelyu
Zhelev opened the meeting, which also heard former CIA chief
William Colby. At the opening session the Greek representative
protested against the participation in the conference by the
Republic of Macedonia. (Rada Nikolaev)

BULGARIA'S 1992 BUDGET PASSED. On 9 April the National Assembly
passed the state budget for 1992 at its second and final reading
following two sessions of debates during which several requests
for additional funding were rejected. BTA said that the budget
provides for distribution of funding in a balanced way, so as
not to induce inflation. No details are available on possible
changes as compared with the initial draft proposed by the government
on 24 March and passed at first reading on 25 March. (Rada Nikolaev)


INCIDENT AT BULGARIA'S NATIONAL ASSEMBLY. An incident on 9 April
at the National Assembly sharpened the confrontation between
the ruling UDF and the opposition BSP. UDF deputy Ventseslav
Dimitrov was mobbed by demonstrating pensioners outside the parliament.
When he took the floor at the beginning of the session to complain,
he was assaulted by Valkan Vergiev of the BSP parliamentary group,
who had to be removed by the guards. BTA and the dailies on 10
April gave prominent coverage to the event, expressing worries
over the failure of police to react adequately and about the
aggressiveness of the pensioners, said to have been organized
by the BSP. The UDF caucus issued a statement accusing the BSP
of trying to foment a general political crisis. (Rada Nikolaev)


CARNOGURSKY'S PARTY WANTS TO RAISE SLOVAK PROFILE. Premier Jan
Carnogursky says his Christian Democratic Movement wants to raise
Slovakia's profile in the world but does not want to break up
the Czech and Slovak federation. Carnogursky told reporters in
Bratislava on 9 April that he believes international respect
will come only after Czechoslovakia's internal political dispute
is solved. A constructive, gradual promotion of Slovakia in international
organizations, rather than declarations of sovereignty, are the
best way to promote Slovakia, he said. (Barbara Kroulik)

HUNGARIAN-ROMANIAN CULTURAL RELATIONS. Romanian Minister of Culture
Ludovic Spiess told reporters on 9 April in Budapest that in
September a Hungarian and a Romanian house of culture will open
in Bucharest and Budapest, respectively, MTI reported. Spiess
arrived for a three-day visit at the head of a delegation consisting
of cultural officials. Hungarian Ministry of Culture State Secretary
Attila Kalman called the development of Hungarian-Romanian cultural
relations "exemplary despite the fact that the same cannot be
said of political relations." A bilateral agreement on cultural
cooperation dating from last year provides, among other things,
for the staging of exhibitions and for exchanges of artists.
(Edith Oltay)

RUSSIA CONTINUES TO IMPEDE TRADE WITH LATVIA. Diena reported
on 8 April that the accord on "small clearing" of goods between
Latvia and Russia signed two weeks ago is still not working.
The accord set up the framework for the exchange of foodstuffs
and energy resources. Ilmars Cirksis, Latvian deputy minister
of foreign trade, said that when he has inquired in Moscow about
the delay, he has only received vague assurances that everything
will be working very soon. Russian fuel is needed in Latvia for
urgent tasks such as spring sowing. (Dzintra Bungs)

SUBSISTENCE LEVEL INCOME RAISED AGAIN IN LATVIA. As a consequence
of ever-increasing inflation (estimated at 30% each month by
specialists of the Free Trade Union Association), the Latvian
government decided on 8 April to raise the minimum wage and subsistence
level income from 670 to 1000 rubles a month as of 16 April,
Radio Riga reported on 9 April. The Ministry of Welfare estimates
that subsistence level monthly income in March should have been
pegged at 1140 rubles, Diena reported on 8 April. (Dzintra Bungs)


CULTURE IN TROUBLE IN ESTONIA. Hard times continue to dog culture
in Estonia, as one report about a troubled Tallinn facility suggests.
Because of lack of business, the Tallinn City Hall, a concert
hall and convention center, was forced to take out a bank loan
on 8 April to pay employee salaries, BNS reports. The hall's
director Ago Kalde said there are no Estonian artists who can
sell out the 4200-seat hall anymore. "It's easier to fill the
hall with a Russian audience," he said, "but the seats must always
be repaired after Russian rock concerts." Kalde said the hall
will try to survive the current crisis by temporarily renting
out space and by seeking new sponsors. (Riina Kionka)

[As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Carla Thorson And Charles Trumbull



(END)

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