The only thing one knows about human nature is that it changes. - Oscar Wilde
RFE/RL Daily Report

No. 68, 07 April 1992





SUCCESSOR STATES TO THE USSR



FIRST DAY OF CONGRESS: VICTORY FOR THE OPPOSITION? Although a
proposal for a vote of no confidence on the Russian government
was defeated by a marginal majority of Russian deputies, Russian
President Yeltsin's legal adviser Sergei Shakhrai told "Novosti"
on 6 April that the opposition had "won the first round" of debate
on the first day of the Congress. All Yeltsin's proposals on
the agenda were voted down by the deputies, Shakhrai explained,
and the opposition will still have an opportunity to express
their dissatisfaction with the government following its report
on the course of economic reforms. (Julia Wishnevsky)

OPPOSITION BRANDS REFORMISTS "CRIMINAL." Probably the most important
victory for the opposition was the resolution calling on the
Russian General Prosecutor to investigate appeals made by many
Russian officials, including those present at the Citizen's Assembly
called to support the Yeltsin government on 5 April, that the
Congress and other soviets be disbanded. Such appeals, the resolution
noted, are regarded as criminal under Russian law. The resolution
was adopted by 587 votes, with 62 against and 32 abstentions.
(Julia Wishnevsky)

YELTSIN RENEWS PRESIDENTIAL CONSULTATIVE COUNCIL. A permanently
functioning Presidential Consultative Council has been created
under the chairmanship of Russian President Boris Yeltsin, Russian
TV reported on 6 April. The membership of the Council includes
numerous well-known politicians, academics, scientists, journalists
and film makers. Among them are Gennadii Burbulis (deputy chairman),
Georgii Arbatov, Oleg Bogomolov, Pavel Bunich, Daniil Granin,
Yurii Levada, Gavriil Popov, Anatolii Sobchak, Vladimir Tikhonov,
Dmitrii Volkogonov, Egor Yakovlev and Mark Zakharov. The Council
has been in existence since 1990, albeit with a smaller membership
but seldom met. (Alexander Rahr)

YELTSIN'S RESHUFFLE: A CONCESSION TO THE INDUSTRIAL LOBBY? Boris
Yeltsin was applauded when, in his televised address to the "Citizens'
Assembly" in Moscow on 5 April, he spoke of plans to bring into
the cabinet "a number of major entrepreneurs and producers."
While Yeltsin's cabinet reshuffle of 3-4 April seems to have
been prompted by his desire to shield some of his closest associates
from attack at this week's session of the Congress of People's
Deputies, there are reports from Moscow that the president is
planning an expanded, coalition-type cabinet that would coopt
representatives of state-owned businesses, many of whom are deeply
unhappy with Yeltsin's economic reforms. A deal may have been
in the making for some time. First deputy prime ministers (as
both then were) Burbulis and Gaidar met on 1 April with directors
of leading Russian industrial enterprises and, Interfax reported
on 2 April, Gaidar promised to "modify" the government's economic
policies. (Elizabeth Teague)

STANKEVICH SUPPORTS GOVERNMENT CHANGES. Russian State Counsellor
Sergei Stankevich denied that recent government changes were
made as a result of pressure from the parliament on the Russian
president. He told Russian TV on 6 April that the government
had to be restructured according to the new requirements of the
reform process. Stankevich indicated that the time for theoreticians
to run the government had passed and that professionals with
managerial skills from industry and agriculture would be incorporated
into the government in the course of the Congress. (Alexander
Rahr)

RUTSKOI ON "DNIESTER REPUBLIC." Russian Vice-president Aleksandr
Rutskoi addressed the opening session of the Russian Congress
of People's Deputies on 6 April and urged lawmakers to take a
stand on the question of sovereignty for the breakaway "Dniester
Republic." In what Western news agencies described as a strongly
nationalistic speech, Rutskoi argued that the congress must act
to defend Russians throughout the former Soviet Union. He maintained
that the self-proclaimed "Dniester Republic" did not want to
secede from Moldova but was interested in a new federative structure.
(Roman Solchanyk)

GENERALS ON MOLDOVAN PEACE-KEEPERS. The commander of the Moldova-based
Fourteenth Army, Major General Yurii Netkachev, told Moldovapres
on 6 April that his troops are ready to act as a buffer force
in the region, but only with the consent of those states directly
and indirectly involved in the conflict. His comments were echoed
by Colonel General Boris Gromov, first deputy commander of the
CIS Ground Forces, during a "Novosti" broadcast on 6 April. Gromov
urged setting up UN-style CIS peacekeeping forces in the republic,
and suggested that the Fourteenth Army might be used for that
purpose. Meanwhile, Major General Nikolai Stolyarov, an aid to
the CIS high command, said on 6 April that the Fourteenth Army
was in a difficult position and called for a concerted CIS effort
to bring about a political settlement, RIA reported. (Stephen
Foye)

RUTSKOI CRITICIZED IN UKRAINE. Rutskoi's statements during his
recent visit to the Crimea have resulted in a sharp reaction
from Ukraine. Radio Ukraine reported on 6 April that Levko Lukyanenko,
head of the Ukrainian Republican Party and a deputy to the national
parliament, demanded that Rutskoi be declared persona non grata
in Ukraine and that he be barred from entering the country. A
round table with representatives from various political groups
in Kiev has raised the question of initiating criminal proceedings
against the Russian vice-president. (Roman Solchanyk)

CRIMEAN REFERENDUM CAMPAIGN. About 250,000 signatures have been
gathered in the Crimea in support of holding a referendum there
on the status of the peninsula, Radio Rossii reported on 6 April.
Proponents of a referendum needed 180,000 signatures (10% of
the population) by 1 April in order to hold a referendum. (Roman
Solchanyk)

MORE VERBAL SALVOS OVER BLACK SEA FLEET. Charging that Russian
Vice-president Aleksandr Rutskoi's activities during his recent
visit to Sevastopol had been "direct interference" in Ukraine's
internal affairs, the Presidium of the Ukrainian parliament issued
a statement calling on Ukrainian President Leonid Kravchuk to
"immediately take the necessary measures to create a Ukrainian
Navy." In the statement, broadcast on Radio Ukraine on 6 April,
the presidium noted that Ukraine had made a significant contribution
in building all four of the ex-Soviet Navy's fleets. It was claiming
"only that part of the Black Sea Fleet which is registered at
its ports," a part considerably less than its overall naval contributions.
The same day, Kravchuk issued a decree stating that all military
formations stationed on Ukrainian territory were subordinate
to the republic's defense ministry. The ministry was instructed
to "form administrative bodies for the Ukrainian naval forces"
after agreement with the CIS Joint Armed Forces commander-in-chief
on the list of those ships and units that would be temporarily
transferred to the operational control of the CIS strategic forces.
(Doug Clarke)

PROGRESS REPORT ON ECONOMIC REFORM. A Russian government report
entitled "Materials on the Question of the Progress of the Economic
Reform in the Russian Federation" was distributed to all deputies
at the Congress on its opening day, ITAR-TASS reported on 6 April.
This argued, inter alia, that subsidies on fuel and energy amounted
to 498 billion and 132 billion rubles each month, and thus any
delay in the raising of their prices was "absolutely unrealistic."
The document forecast an end to the inflationary spiral, the
high budget deficit and the drop in output by the beginning of
1993. It saw a continuing need during 1992 to defer payments
on foreign debts and for additional credits. (Keith Bush)

CASH SHORTAGE IN RUSSIA TO CONTINUE. Speaking to the Congress
of People's Deputies on 6 April, Chairman of the Central Bank
of the Russian Federation, Georgii Matyukhin said that Russia
was facing what amounted to a severe shortage of currency, ITAR-TASS
reported the same day. Matyukhin said that the shortage could
amount to as much as 66 billion rubles in the second quarter
of 1992. He noted that workers will, in all likelihood, find
their pay envelopes short because of the lack of cash. He told
deputies that there were no plans to carry out a currency reform
in the foreseeable future, and that there were likewise no plans
to index savings accounts. Critics accuse the monetary authorities
lack the political will to pursue austerity measures that could
set Russia's financial problems straight. (John Tedstrom)

ESTIMATED COST OF RESCUE PACKAGE FOR RUSSIA. The Financial Times
of 6 April quotes a calculation by David Roche of Morgan Stanley
of the scale of Western aid needed if the Russian economic reform
program is not to be abandoned in mid-stream. The estimated costs
of direct aid, infrastructural rebuilding, revamping the energy
sector, power stations, agriculture and the food chain, training
and welfare payments to the unemployed, and supplies of consumer
goods total between $76 and $167 billion a year. The calculation
excludes the ruble stabilization fund and expenditures on cleaning
up the environment. (Keith Bush)

EX-SOVIET TROOPS SOON OUT OF MONGOLIA. Mongolian Defense Minister
Shagalyn Jadambaa has said that the last ex-Soviet soldiers would
leave Mongolia before the end of August. He was quoted by AFP
as saying that fewer than 2,000 were still in the country. Some
Western analysts have estimated that at one time as many as 60,000
Soviet troops were in Mongolia. They began to withdraw in 1988.
(Doug Clarke)

RUSSIAN GOVERNMENT HELPS PRESS. At a meeting with representatives
of the regional Russian press on 6 April, deputy prime minister
and minister of the media, Mikhail Poltoranin, praised the Russian
government for taking measures to support the republican press
in the period of economic reforms. Poltoranin stressed that not
only pro-government periodicals had recently started to receive
subsidies from the government, but also opposition ones. Poltoranin
said that, for instance, Pravda received 18 million rubles in
subsidies, ITAR-TASS reported on 6 April. This, according to
the agency, has allowed Pravda to resume publication, which ceased
on 14 March due to the lack of financial resources. ITAR-TASS
said Pravda's next issue will come out on 7 April. (Vera Tolz)


COMMUNIST PARTY REFUSED REGISTRATION IN KAZAKHSTAN. KazTAG-TASS
reported on 3 April that Kazakhstan's Ministry of Justice has
refused to register the statutes of the newly-constituted Communist
Party of Kazakhstan on the grounds that they violate the country's
constitution and declaration of independence. The party, which
groups together hard-liners opposed to the dissolution of the
Soviet Union, calls for Kazakhstan to rejoin a reconstituted
USSR. On this issue, the group differs from the Socialist Party
of Kazakhstan, the official successor to the former ruling Communist
Party. An official of the new party has threatened to appeal
to the courts if registration continues to be denied. (Bess Brown)


DEMONSTRATION CONTINUES IN DUSHANBE. A demonstration sponsored
by the Islamic Party of Tajikistan continued on 5 April, pressing
opposition demands that the Tajik legislature and president Rakhman
Nabiev resign, Moscow TV and Radio Mayak reported. According
to the latter, Nabiev appealed to the opposition to end the demonstration,
which has been underway since 26 March to protest the firing
of Internal Affairs Minister Mamadaez Navzhuvanov and demand
the release of former Dushanbe Mayor Maksud Ikramov, who has
been charged with corruption. The opposition says the charges
are false and politically motivated. (Bess Brown)

NEW MARTYRS CANONIZED. ITAR-TASS reported on 3 April that the
bishops' meeting held at the Danilov monastery in Moscow voted
to establish the 7th of February as the day to commemorate "new
martyrs." A number of metropolitans killed after the revolution,
the Grand Duchess Elisaveta, and a nun killed with her will be
canonized. The meeting also called on the Synodal Commission
for Canonization to start an investigation into the murder of
the Tsar's family. (The Russian Orthodox Church abroad has canonized
over 30,000 "new martyrs," among them the last Tsar, Nicholas
II, and his family in November, 1982, which met with harsh criticism
in both the Soviet and American press.) (Oxana Antic)

CHURCH TO LAUNCH AN INVESTIGATION OF KGB-CHURCH LINKS. Radio
Rossiya reported on 6 April that the bishops' meeting which ended
in Moscow that day, had decided to organize a commission for
the investigation of possible links between the KGB and the Church
during communist rule. (Oxana Antic)



EASTERN EUROPE



CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE

EC STATES AGREE TO RECOGNIZE BOSNIA, WAIT ON MACEDONIA. On 6
April EC foreign ministers agreed to recognize the independence
of Bosnia-Herzegovina and decided to lift economic sanctions
against Serbia, hoping to put a halt to the ongoing violence
and prevent any outbreak of fighting elsewhere in the region.
The EC postponed any decision on recognizing Macedonia because
of Greek opposition. EC member governments are expected to put
into effect their foreign ministers' decision. This will be the
first time in its history that Bosnia-Herzegovina has been recognized
an independent state. Portuguese foreign minister Joao de Deus
Pinheiro told reporters that he expects that the US, Canada,
and other European states will follow the EC's lead in recognizing
Bosnia-Herzegovina. The Chicago Tribune today speculates that
the US will extend recognition to Croatia and Slovenia as well.
(Milan Andrejevich)

REACTIONS IN THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA. Belgrade's independent radio
station B-92 remarked that international recognition of Bosnia-Herzegovina
"represents another defeat for Serbia's diplomacy." Serbian foreign
minister Vladislav Jovanovic described the EC's decision to recognize
as "creating more problems than it is solving." Federal Deputy
foreign minister Milivoje Maksic said he was amazed that the
EC had taken such a step because Bosnia-Herzegovina has not yet
clearly defined itself as a state through a democratic consensus
of all three constituent nations. Croatia and Slovenia welcomed
the decision, but Croatian President Franjo Tudjman urged decisive
foreign intervention to halt the fighting in Bosnia-Herzegovina
and to safeguard that republic's independence. (Milan Andrejevich)


TENSIONS REMAIN HIGH IN BOSNIA. Fighting throughout Bosnia-Herzegovina
overshadowed the EC deliberations. Clashes between Croatian and
Muslims and Serb paramilitary troops were reported in many parts
of the republic. Federal army troops and warplanes were also
engaged in numerous battles against Croatian forces in Herzegovina.
In Sarajevo, another peace demonstration was marred by violence
as Serb gunmen fired shots at the crowd from the upper floors
of a hotel. It is not clear how many people were killed, but
Radio Sarajevo reported at least five deaths. Radio Sarajevo
reported early on 7 April that shooting in the city was gradually
dying down. Federal troops remain in control of the city airport
and have disarmed gunmen who had held some 800 people hostage
in the city's police academy. (Milan Andrejevich)

COMMITTEE OF NATIONAL SALVATION ESTABLISHED. Hundreds of people
who took over national assembly building of Bosnia-Herzegovina
on Sunday established a "Committee of National Salvation" after
their demands calling for the resignation of the republic's government
failed. More than 20,000 protesters outside the assembly supported
the action. The 20-member committee comprises a balanced mix
of Muslims, Serbs, and Croats and includes prominent scholars,
businessmen, civil servants, and a retired Yugoslav army general.
The committee has been empowered to appoint an interim government.
It is demanding that elections take place soon and is calling
on the Yugoslav army to protect Bosnia's citizens and establish
a crisis center with the UN peace mission headquartered in Sarajevo.
Meanwhile, Bosnia's collective Presidency accepted the resignation
of Prime Minister Jure Pelivan, a Croat, and approved the holding
of new parliamentary elections soon. Radio Sarajevo speculated
that Pelivan's resignation could lead to the collapse of the
government. (Milan Andrejevich)

BOSNIAN SERBS DECLARE INDEPENDENCE. Radio Sarajevo reports that
early on 7 April in Banja Luka the Assembly of the Serbian People
in Bosnia-Herzegovina declared the independence of the Serbian
Republic of Bosnia-Herzegovina. In early January Bosnian Serb
leaders proclaimed the republic and threatened to declare its
independence if Bosnia-Herzegovina were recognized as an independent
state. During the assembly session, the two Serb representatives
on the seven-member Bosnian Presidency submitted their resignations.
Though the actions were expected, further uncertainty is added
to the Bosnian crisis. (Milan Andrejevich)

ESTONIA CONFIRMS FOREIGN MINISTER. The Estonian Supreme Council
confirmed Jaan Manitski as foreign minister on 6 April, the RFE/RL
Estonian Service reports. According to Estonian Foreign Ministry
officials, the vote was 46 to 28, with 16 abstentions. Manitski,
a 50-year-old businessman from Sweden who left Estonia as a child,
currently lives in Brussels. He is expected to maintain the foreign
policy course set by his predecessor Lennart Meri, who resigned
in February after many months of criticism over his management
of the foreign ministry. (Riina Kionka)

ESTONIAN ELECTION LAW PASSED. The Supreme Council on 6 April
passed an election law, bringing the country one step closer
holding its first parliamentary elections after the reinstatement
of independence. The law, which passed 56 to 8 with 2 abstentions,
allows all citizens of the Republic of Estonia who reside there
permanently to vote, according to an RFE/RL Estonian Service
report. This provision excludes from voting the tens of thousands
of Estonians living abroad who retain citizenship. Elections
are expected in June, after a referendum on the new constitution
is held. (Riina Kionka)

POLISH DEFENSE MINISTER WARNS POLITICIANS . . . Speaking to general
staff officers on 6 April, Jan Parys accused some politicians
of "fomenting intrigues to the detriment of the army and the
country." According to PAP Parys said that "attempts to inveigle
the army into intrigues have recently increased." Parys said
that "lately certain politicians, without the knowledge of the
minister or the chief of the general staff, have been entertaining
officers and promising them promotions in return for the army's
support in political intrigues." Parys declined to name the politicians
involved. Asked by PAP to comment on Parys's remarks, representatives
of several political parties denied any involvement. (Roman Stefanowski)


. . . AND SPEAKS ON THE COUNTRY'S SECURITY. Responding to an
officer who had expressed concern about underestimating the German
threat to Polish security, Parys said that "public opinion polls
have shown that in case of a threat, it is Germany that would
come to Poland's aid." There is no reason to imagine, said Parys,
that democracy in Germany would break down in the near future
and that circles hostile to Poland would take over. Poland and
Germany are in the same European camp, said Parys, and so long
as the Germans are integrated within Europe they are influenced
by European institutions. Parys was less certain about Poland's
Eastern neighbors, however, since "we cannot see which way the
situation will develop there." (Roman Stefanowski)

ISRAELI ARMY CHIEF OF STAFF IN POLAND. Lt. Gen. Ehud Barak, Israeli
Chief of Staff, arrived in Poland on 6 April for a three-day
official visit, a first of this kind, Polish and Western media
report. His Polish host and counterpart Gen. Zdzislaw Stelmaszuk
said no military agreements or equipment contracts will be signed,
but Barak did propose an exchange of military attaches in the
near future. Barak said he is an optimist as far as Israeli-Polish
military cooperation is concerned but "things must move slowly."
On 7 April Barak and members of his delegation will visit the
site of the Auschwitz concentration camp for a religious commemorative
ceremony. (Roman Stefanowski)

BULGARIAN-CZECHOSLOVAK TREATY SIGNED. Vaclav Havel paid a one-day
visit to Bulgaria on 6 April, his first visit to the country
as Czechoslovak president. Havel and his Bulgarian host, Zhelyu
Zhelev, signed a friendship treaty valid for ten years. Bulgarian
and Czechoslovak media said its aim is to develop close cooperation,
while an emphasis was placed on the European connection of both
countries. Havel also met with top Bulgarian officials. Prime
Minister Filip Dimitrov promised to release Bulgarian documents
on the 1968 Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia. Separately
the two ministers of finance discussed Bulgaria's debt to Czechoslovakia
which BTA said amounts to 343 million transfer rubles. (Rada
Nikolaev)

GERMANY IS CZECHOSLOVAKIA'S MAIN TRADING PARTNER. The Czechoslovak
Foreign Trade Ministry said on 6 April that Germany has now surpassed
the former USSR as Czechoslovakia's biggest export market. The
ministry says exports to Germany have risen by one-third since
1990 and accounted for 25% of Czechoslovakia's total exports
last year. Exports to the ex-USSR amounted to only 19%. This
is the first time since World War II that Czechoslovak exports
to Germany surpassed those to the republics of the former USSR,
although last year the USSR remained Czechoslovakia's main source
of imports (about one-third) while imports from Germany amounted
to just over 20% of the total, Western agencies report. (Barbara
Kroulik)

HUNGARY TURNS AWAY HALF A MILLION FOREIGNERS. Hungarian Border
Guard spokesman Attila Krisan told Radio Budapest on 6 April
that some half a million foreigners were turned away at the borders
in the past six months. Some 70% of those who were denied entry
came from Romania, 20% from former communist countries, and the
rest came from other countries. Krisan said that some 8,000 foreigners
were turned away last weekend alone. Hungary introduced stricter
entry requirements six months ago in an attempt to curb the tide
of illegal immigration. (Edith Oltay)

NEW COUNTIES IN LATVIA. The Latvian Supreme Council Presidium
decided to establish four new counties: Serene county in Aizkraukle
district; Ivande county in Kuldiga district; Strazde county in
Talsi district; and Evele county in Valka district. In addition,
Adazi county was divided into Adazi and Carnikava counties. The
decision was prompted by repeated requests of those living in
the Carnikava area who want to develop their county as a health
resort. In contrast, the present Adazi county is much more industrialized,
and one-third of its territory is taken up by the base of the
ex-USSR armed forces, BNS reported on 2 April. (Dzintra Bungs)


ANCUPOVS HEADS LATVIAN SC PRESS CENTER. On 2 April the Latvian
Supreme Council's Presidium appointed Sergejs Ancupovs to head
the legislature's press center, Diena reports. Ancupovs, who
was born in Khabarovsk, grew up in Liepaja and has a fine command
of Latvian. From 5 June 1990 until 1 April 1992 he was the chief
Latvian TV correspondent at the Supreme Council. He replaces
Aleksandr Mirlin, also a Russian fluent in Latvian. (Dzintra
Bungs)

LATVIAN PARLIAMENTARY ELECTIONS BY FALL OF 1993? Discussions
of when and how to hold elections to Saeima, the parliament of
independent Latvia, are increasing. The People's Front of Latvia
parliamentary faction has recommended holding the elections no
later than the fall of 1993. Minister of State Janis Dinevics
told Diena on 3 April that before such elections can be held,
new legislations have to be adopted, including laws on political
parties and citizenship. Representatives of the more conservative
organizations, however, believe that such elections should take
place only after the ex-USSR occupation forces have been withdrawn
from Latvia. (Dzintra Bungs)

BALTS AND BARCELONA. The head of the International Olympic Committee
has urged the Baltic States to hold the number of athletes and
officials they send to the summer games in Barcelona to a total
of 35 each. IOC President Juan Samaranch told the Estonian Olympic
Committee in Tallinn on 4 April that because space is limited
in Barcelona, Estonia should send only those athletes who have
a real chance of reaching the finals in their events. During
his visit to Lithuania the next day, Samaranch made an exception
for the Baltic basketball teams. In the meantime, the Lithuanian
Olympic Committee has given three Lithuanian basketball stars--all
career soldiers in the former Soviet military--until 7 April
to decide whether they will play for Lithuania. The three, who
want to play for the unified CIS team because they think they
stand a better chance at the gold medal, have been dubbed "traitors
in basketball-mad Lithuania," AFP reports. (Riina Kionka)

SOME BULGARIANS REPENT, OTHERS RESENT. A big rally on 4 April
at Sofia's Vasil Levski stadium organized by Swedish evangelist
Ulf Ekman of the Words of Life sect has touched off a wave of
concern and protest over the activities of foreign sects. Sofia
dailies report that some 20,000 attended the "Heavenly Explosion"
show. The protest of one Sofia bishop was published in Trud on
4 April, and another statement by a religious organization quoted
by BTA, notes that Bulgaria has been Christian for 1127 years
and does not need foreign preachers coming in to undermine the
Orthodox Church. An outspoken article in 24 chasa reveals details
of the organization and activities of such sects and faults the
Orthodox Church and the parliamentary commission on religion
for their failure to act against this unwelcome phenomenon. (Rada
Nikolaev)

CORRECTION. The Daily Report of 6 April mistakenly identified
Anatolii P. Ustyuzhanin as Russian minister of agriculture. His
correct post, from which he was dismissed on 4 April, was first
deputy minister of agriculture and food production of the Russian
Federation. Agriculture Minister Viktor Khlystun is still in
office. We apologize for this error. (Elizabeth Teague)

[As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Carla Thorson and Charles Trumbull

(END)

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