|The best way to make your dreams come true is to wake up. - Paul Vale´ry|
No. 67, 06 April 1992
SUCCESSOR STATES TO THE USSR CONGRESS OF PEOPLE'S DEPUTIES OPENS. The sixth Russian Congress of People's Deputies opened in Moscow on 6 April. Some commentators, such as Yurii Rostov of "Vesti" believe that this is going to be one of the most important congresses in Russian history. Others, such as former Yeltsin spokesman Pavel Voshchanov in an interview on the 5 April TV weekly newscast "Itogi," have opined that the status quo will be preserved. Most observers believe that the Congress is unlikely to adopt the new Russian Constitution, even in principle. Another important question on the agenda is whether Russian President Boris Yeltsin should keep his extraordinary power to appoint government ministers without parliamentary approval. (Julia Wishnevsky) BURBULIS RESIGNS? Boris Yeltsin's right-hand man, Gennadii Burbulis, resigned his post as first deputy prime minister on 3 April. Burbulis, however, remains a state counsellor in charge of Russian foreign policy and law-enforcement bodies, thus keeping all his powers intact. Burbulis is reportedly the most unpopular politician in Russia; he seems to be the main cause of Yeltsin's split with Russian Vice-president Aleksandr Rutskoi and parliamentary Chairman Ruslan Khasbulatov. (Julia Wishnevsky) YELTSIN CONTINUES CABINET RESHUFFLE. In what observers saw as an effort to preempt criticism of his government at the session of Russia's Congress of People's Deputies, Yeltsin on 4 April removed Deputy Prime Minister Aleksandr Shokhin's portfolio as minister of labor and employment, Interfax and Reuters reported. Shokhin, the fourth member of Yeltsin's team to lose a post in two days, retains his rank as deputy prime minister. Born in 1951, the reformist economist was nominated to the cabinet by the Russian Social Democratic Party. He is one of the architects of the "social partnership" agreement recently concluded between the Yeltsin government, the official and unofficial Russian trade unions, and Russia's fledgling entrepreneurs' associations. (Elizabeth Teague) AGRICULTURE MINISTER SACKED; OTHER CHANGES. ITAR-TASS announced on 4 April that Yeltsin had dismissed Agriculture Minister A. Ustyuzhanin for "gross violation of official duties." The agency went on to report that further government appointments included those of a first deputy finance minister, several deputy chairmen of the state committee on prices, a deputy chairman of the food industry committee, several deputy railway ministers, and a number of deputy chairmen of the state committee on precious metals. (Elizabeth Teague) YELTSIN NAMES TWO FIRST DEPUTY DEFENSE MINISTERS. . . On 3 April, Yeltsin officially named Colonel General Pavel Grachev and defense specialist Andrei Kokoshin as Russian first deputy defense ministers, ITAR-TASS reported. Grachev has served in both the CIS and the Russian defense establishments, while Kokoshin was deputy director of the USA and Canada Institute. He is 46 years old. Boris Yeltsin continues to serve as Russian defense minister, and the dual appointment appears to be an attempt to satisfy both the military leadership, which would like to place an officer at the head of the Russian Defense Ministry, and reformers, who want to see a civilian in that position. (Stephen Foye) AND CONSOLIDATES CONTROL OVER ARMY. According to Reuters, Yeltsin also signed a decree on 3 April placing himself at the head of the Russian national security council, and asserted temporary Russian control over all border troops in the Transcaucasus region. A Yeltsin spokesman said that the troops would remain under Russian jurisdiction until border protection agreements were signed with Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan. (Stephen Foye) RUTSKOI: CRIMEA MUST BE PART OF RUSSIA. Russian Vice-president Aleksandr Rutskoi is quoted as saying on 4 April that common sense shows that the Crimea must once again be part of Russia. According to Interfax, Rutskoi told naval officers in Sevastopol that the Russian leaders who handed the Crimea over to Ukraine in 1954 must have been "suffering from sunstroke or a hangover." He also said that the Russian Congress of People's Deputies may take up the issue. (Roman Solchanyk) RUTSKOI ON "DNIESTER REPUBLIC." Rutskoi, arriving in the breakaway "Dniester Republic" from Sevastopol, told a crowd in Bendery on 5 April that the republic exists and must exist, Western news agencies reported. In a speech in Tiraspol, the Russian vice-president suggested that a referendum be held to decide the republic's status. Moldovan President Mircea Snegur has protested Rutskoi's visit in a message to Boris Yeltsin and accused Russia of violating its treaty with Moldova. In the meantime, the "Dniester Republic" has appealed to the Russian Congress of People's Deputies to recognize the republic and its right to self-determination. (Roman Solchanyk) THE ARMY IN MOLDOVA. An officers' assembly meeting in Bendery on 4 April threatened to intercede forcibly if hostilities are not halted in Moldova, according to ITAR-TASS and western reports. The threat was the second to be issued by former Soviet officers serving in the region in the last week, but it was unclear how many officers stood behind the latest statement. Meanwhile, CIS Commander in Chief Evgenii Shaposhnikov said in Komsomolskaya pravda on 4 April that he believed the Fourteenth army, deployed in Moldova, should be used as a peace-keeping force in the region. On 4 April CIS generals, Boris Gromov and Boris Pyankov, arrived in Tiraspol to meet with local leaders. (Stephen Foye) PARLIAMENT ON RUSSIAN ARMY. The Presidium of the Russian parliament issued a document on 4 April that called for the government to move quickly to create a Russian army, Interfax reported. It charged that the inability of CIS states to reach consensus had caused inadmissible delays in reaching solutions to pressing defense-related problems. The document nevertheless urged the creation of a system of collective security among CIS states. It also recommended significant reductions in military spending, and called for legislative participation in defense policy-making, conversion, and decisions on the military budget. (Stephen Foye) BLACK SEA FLEET DEVELOPMENTS. The dispute between Russia and Ukraine over the future of the former Soviet Black Sea Fleet flared up again recently. In a statement carried by Reuters on 3 April, Russian President Boris Yeltsin warned that Russia would be obliged to take the fleet "under its own jurisdiction" if anyone attempted to unilaterally change the status of the fleet. He sent his vice president, Aleksandr Rutskoi to the Crimea, where Radio Mayak reported on 4 April he received an ovation from naval officers when he declared that "the Black Sea Fleet was and will be Russian." The radio also broadcast an account of the third congress of the Ukrainian Union of Officers in Kiev, where the chairman proposed that Ukraine immediately take the fleet under its jurisdiction and set up an "alternative fleet command" in Sevastopol. Interfax reported that same day that Ukraine had removed Rear Admiral Mikhail Prokapshuk from his post as "chief of the special department" for the fleet. (Doug Clarke) REFORMISTS SPLIT OVER DEMROSSIYA'S PROGRAM. On 5 April, Russian media gave much prominence to the Congress of Russian Citizens organized by the Democratic Russia movement, the Movement for Democratic Reforms and other reform-minded groups. The Congress supported the market-oriented reforms and the Yeltsin government. However, according to "Vesti," the audience split after the leadership of Democratic Russia urged that the CPSU be put on trial, that all former Party officials who now serve in the Russian government be fired, and the Russian parliament be disbanded and replaced with a constituent assembly. (Julia Wishnevsky) GAIDAR ON THE 1992 BUDGET. In an interview with The Financial Times of 3 April, given as the news of his release from the post of finance minister was announced, Egor Gaidar conceded that Russia's budget for 1992 would not be balanced. He hoped for a deficit of "less than 5% of the GDP at the end of the year." The tight credit policy, outlined in the memorandum aimed at the IMF and G-7, would be significantly relaxed during the first half of 1992-at the suggestion of the IMF, according to Gaidar. He was, however, confident that the money supply would be tightened again during the second half of the year. He reckoned that when the stabilization fund is in place, the ruble will float at 40-50 rubles to the dollar. (Keith Bush) UN REPORT GLOOMY ON EASTERN EUROPE AND CIS ECONOMIES. The UN Economic Survey of Europe in 1991- 1992 was released to the press on 5 April. It forecast further falls in output and sharp rises in unemployment in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. The Survey is an annual report produced by UN Secretariat economists recruited from both East and West. In 1990 this team called for a large, coordinated package of Western assistance to the region, and in Autumn 1991 it described the situation in Eastern Europe as a "depression." The UN economists now see a possible recovery soon in Poland and Hungary, but fear a general collapse of the reform process in the region as political support for change fades. (Philip Hanson) RUSSIAN MINIMUM WAGE AND PENSION TO BE RAISED. On the day that he was removed from the post of Russian Labor and Employment Minister, Aleksandr Shokhin announced more generous social protection measures, according to The Financial Times of 4 March. He was reported as stating that the minimum wage would be raised from 342 rubles to 900 rubles a month, while the minimum pension would go up from 500 rubles to 800 rubles a month. Yet ITAR-TASS of 3 March suggested that the Russian parliament had adopted a law that day providing for a higher minimum old-age pension (800 rubles a month) than the government had proposed. Whatever the provenance, it appears that the minimum pension will go up. (Keith Bush) UKRAINE BLOCKS BOMBERS FOR AIR SHOW. Ukrainian authorities would not allow six strategic bombers based in Ukraine fly to Moscow to participate in an air show, ITAR-TASS reported on 3 April. The commander of CIS long-range aviation had wanted the planes to participate in an event celebrating the international day of aviation. His request was turned down by Lt. Gen. Ivan Bizhan, a Ukrainian deputy minister of defense, who argued that since no decision had been made on which forces in Ukraine were strategic forces, there were no grounds to consider these planes part of the CIS Joint Armed Forces. The bombers included Tu-160 "Backfires." Western reports that the sole Tu-160 unit in the former Soviet forces had moved from Ukraine to Russia in January were therefore incorrect. (Doug Clarke) COMMITTEE ON SOLDIERS' DEATHS. According to figures released at a meeting of the Russian Presidential Committee for Servicemen's Affairs, some 1,300 soldiers die in the Soviet/CIS armed forces each year as a result of criminal actions, "Novosti" reported on 3 April. Altogether, approximately 6,000 soldiers died in the last year, according to a deputy chairman of the committee, Albert Khrapovich. He said that over the last ten years the armed forces had lost five submarines as a result of accidents. (Stephen Foye) GEORGIAN PREMIER OUTLINES ECONOMIC PLANS. Troops loyal to the ruling State Council have retaken the Black Sea port of Poti and the towns of Khobi, Senaki and Zugdidi from supporters of ousted Georgian President Zviad Gamsakhurdia, but the latter "are still trying to destabilize the situation" in western Georgia, acting Prime Minister Tengiz Sigua told Western journalists on 5 April. Sigua expressed the hope that the improved political situation would encourage Western companies to invest in Georgia, and that by the end of 1992 the economy would be stabilized. The interim Georgian government has begun privatizing land and has prepared a range of reforms. (Liz Fuller) KOZYREV IN TRANSCAUCASUS. Russian Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev met in Erevan on 3 April with Armenian President Levon Ter-Petrossyan, Foreign Minister Raffi Hovanissian and established formal relations between the two countries, ITAR-TASS reported. On 4 April Kozyrev talked with Patriarch Vazgen I before flying to Baku where, after talks with acting President Yakub Mamedov, both men affirmed their commitment to achieving a ceasefire in Nagorno-Karabakh and beginning negotiations. On 5 April, Kozyrev visited the towns of Gyandzha and Naftalan before departing for Moldova. (Liz Fuller) NEW PRIME MINISTER IN AZERBAIJAN. Following the breakdown of talks on forming a coalition government with the Azerbaijan Popular Front after the resignation of President Ayaz Mutalibov, self-styled moderate Hasan Hasanov resigned as Azerbaijani Prime Minister on 4 April; the Turan News Agency reported on 5 April that Hasanov has been named Azerbaijan's ambassador to the UN. Acting President Yakub Mamedov has appointed as Prime Minister the 59 year old agronomist Feyruz Radzhab ogly Mustafaev. Mustafaev began his career as a livestock specialist before switching to full-time Party work. In 1987 he was appointed deputy chairman of the republic's Gosagroprom, and in May, 1991 first deputy prime minister. (Liz Fuller) RADIO LIBERTY ON RUSSIAN TV. On 5 April, Russian TV devoted a 65-minute program to Radio Liberty. The program was based on the report of a meeting held on 31 October 1991 in the Moscow Central House of Writers that was attended by US Ambassador Robert Strauss, staff employees of the RL Russian Service and leading liberal Russian writers. (Julia Wishnevsky) \fo25; EASTERN EUROPE\fo5; CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE "FEAR AND CHAOS REIGN IN BOSNIA." This is how Radio Sarajevo describes the situation in Bosnia-Herzegovina during the early morning hours of 6 April. Sarajevo is also under heavy fire from mortar and artillery shells. On the morning of 6 April Yugoslav army tanks rolled into the city. Yesterday Serb paramilitary troops seized a Sarajevo police academy holding some 800 people hostage. Three army barracks in Sarajevo were also shelled and the city's airport is now under army control after sustaining heavy damage from mortar fire. (Milan Andrejevich) WEEKEND OF VIOLENCE. This weekend was the most violent in the republic since World War II, and many fear a full-fledged civil war is now unavoidable. Sarajevo radio and TV cite unconfirmed police reports that more than 200 people have been killed since Friday in Kupres, a town in western Bosnia. On 5 April a peace rally in Sarajevo ended in violence as masked gunmen opened fire on the crowd, killing ten people. During the evening a ceasefire agreement was reached in a Sarajevo TV studio by representatives of the three national parties which make up the ruling coalition-- Alija Izetbegovic of the Muslim Party of Democratic Action, Radovan Karadzic of the Serbian Democratic Party, and Miljenko Brkic of the Croatian Democratic Community, and the commander of the Yugoslav army's 2nd Military District and EC monitor Antonio Santos. Despite an appeal broadcast on local radio and TV, the ceasefire is not being observed in the republic and widespread looting is reported. Last night a curfew was ordered in Sarajevo, and several towns in the republic have declared a state of emergency. (Milan Andrejevich) SARAJEVO CITIZENS ISSUE ULTIMATUM. On 5 April several hundred people of all ethnic groups gathered inside the Bosnia-Herzegovina National Assembly building demanding that a full session of the assembly be held by noon on 6 April, televised live, to consider a vote of no-confidence in the government. The demonstrators also demanded that the assembly form a government of national salvation or else the citizens themselves will set up a crisis committee to form a new government. Sarajevo TV covered the events live. After meeting with a group of protesters, republic prime minister Jure Pelivan resigned. Early on the morning of 6 April Izetbegovic addressed the protesters for two minutes and made an appeal for peace and freedom for all Bosnians. The crowd responded "It's all over! Resign, resign!" (Milan Andrejevich) YUGOSLAV ARMY BLAMED FOR BIJELJINA MASSACRE. On 4 April the Presidency of Bosnia-Herzegovina announced a general mobilization of the republic's territorial defense units and police reservists and ordered the Serb-dominated federal army to return all weapons and equipment it took from the republic's security forces in October 1990 on the pretext of safeguarding the republic from illegal weapons. Bosnian President Izetbegovic made the announcement on TV and sharply criticized the army for having failed to prevent the killing of 27 people, mostly Muslims, in Bijeljina in northeastern Bosnia by Serb paramilitary units who seized the town on 2 April. Bosnian Serb leaders rejected the mobilization order as "irresponsible" because it had been issued without the consent of the two Serb representatives on the seven-member Presidency; they were in northern Bosnia negotiating a ceasefire. Radios Sarajevo and Belgrade suggested that the mobilization order was partly responsible for Sunday's outburst of violence. (Milan Andrejevich) MORTAR SHELLS FROM CROATIA EXPLODE IN HUNGARY. On 3 April, 21 mortar shells fired from Croatia exploded on Hungarian territory near the village of Kasad, Hungarian Foreign Ministry spokesman Janos Herman told MTI the same day. He said that Hungary will call for urgent UN and EC measures to prevent a spillover of the fighting onto Hungarian territory. The Hungarian Border Guards reinforced security forces along the border with Croatia. (Edith Oltay) CONCERN OVER BULGARIAN MINORITY IN SERBIA. Bulgarian media have been voicing concern over the situation of the thousands of Bulgarians living in the so-called Western Provinces in Serbia and formerly recognized there as an ethnic minority. A report from Belgrade on Bulgarian radio on 3 April said that the Serbian Ministry of Information had ordered the dismissal of all journalists of the Bulgarian-language newspaper Bratstvo who hold leading posts in the Democratic Union of Bulgarians. There had even been suggestions to ban that union. The correspondent called on Foreign Minister Stoyan Ganev to raise the issue with his Serbian counterpart. The next day the radio interviewed a visitor from the region, who pointed out that Serbia has set up a ministry for Serbs abroad, but has no ministry for ethnic minorities in Serbia. (Rada Nikolaev) BULGARIA'S FOREIGN DEBT. On 2 April Bulgaria held talks in Frankfurt with the London Club of commercial banks, creditors of some $8.5 billion of Bulgaria's total bank debt, which amounts to $10.5 billion. An RFE/RL report and Bulgarian media said Minister of Finance Ivan Kostov presented an all-round concept for renegotiating the debt, including options for its repurchase at a discount and the exchange of debt for bonds. The banks said they will study the proposal and respond in May. A three-month deferment of payments due by the end of March was granted. (Rada Nikolaev) BULGARIAN LAND LAW SIGNED. Despite numerous protests from the socialist opposition and calls on President Zhelev to veto the measure, the law on farmland, passed on 20 March, was signed off by the president for officila publication. Zhelev defended some of the contended provisions, noting, in particular, that the law is not against cooperatives in general. On 4 April BTA quoted a statement by the Supreme Council of the Bulgarian Socialist Party saying that it will take all legal means to stop implementation of the law. (Rada Nikolaev) POLISH BUDGET PRESENTED TO PARLIAMENT. On 3 April Finance Minister Andrzej Olechowski presented the government's budget to the Sejm. Acknowledging that it will be difficult for them to approve, he nonetheless called it realistic and said it provides a chance to overcome the economic crisis. The budget calls for government spending cuts and higher taxes to cut the deficit, Western media report. A final vote on the budget is not expected until early next month after review by commissions. (Wladyslaw Minkiewicz) HAVEL ATTACKS SLOVAK SEPARATIST AND NATIONALIST MOVES. On 5 April Czechoslovak President Vaclav Havel denounced last week's failed attempt to get the Slovak parliament to declare sovereignty. In a radio address Havel said the proposal by Deputy Viliam Oberhauser of the Slovak Christian Democratic Movement was irresponsible and poorly thought-out. Havel also attacked Slovak National Unity Movement Chairman Stanislav Panis, who had questioned the extent of Nazi murder of Jews. Following Havel's remarks, CSTK quoted Czechoslovak parliament Chairman Alexander Dubcek as saying a Slovak sovereignty declaration could lead to unconstitutional actions. Dubcek said calls for such a declaration are aimed at Slovak independence. Meanwhile, Czechoslovak Finance Minister Vaclav Klaus, speaking at the Konrad Adenauer Foundation in St. Augustin, Germany, said that there is now a real possibility that his country will split. Even if this were to happen, however, Klaus said he does not think a dramatic economic dislocation would result. (Barbara Kroulik) IMF LOAN TO CZECHOSLOVAKIA. The International Monetary Fund has approved a $322 million credit line to Czechoslovakia. The money will be available to support economic reforms and privatization. On 3 April the IMF praised what it said was significant progress last year in Czechoslovakia's effort to liberalize its economy, tame inflation, and improve its trade position, foreign agencies report. (Barbara Kroulik) HUNGARIAN-GREEK TREATY. On 3 April in Budapest Greek Prime Minister Constantine Mitsotakis and his Hungarian counterpart Jozsef Antall signed a treaty on friendship and cooperation, MTI reports. Antall told reporters that the treaty will deepen bilateral cooperation in all fields and create the framework for settling disputes such as the recent border blockade by Greek truckers opposed to an increase in Hungarian transit fees. Mitsotakis termed his three-day official visit "very useful" and expressed support for Hungary's membership in the EC, saying that of all the former communist countries Hungary best demonstrated its commitment to a market economy. (Edith Oltay) HSWP SENT MOSCOW $5 MILLION. The Hungarian Socialist Workers' Party (HSWP--the communists), between 1960 and 1987 transferred $5.05 million to a Moscow account to finance communist parties worldwide. This was revealed on 3 April by officials of the Hungarian Socialist Party, which was formed out of the reform wing of the HSWP. The money came from membership fees and made up between 1.3-2% of the HSWP's annual income. Deputy Parliamentary Speaker Matyas Szuros, one of the few top communist officials who knew about the transfers, told Radio Budapest on 2 April, "I tried several times to refuse the transfers but without success." He said that Moscow would surely have imposed economic and political sanctions had HSWP leader Janos Kadar refused payments. (Edith Oltay) HUNGARIANS IN ROMANIA SPEAK OUT. Geza Domokos, President of the Democratic Union of the Hungarians in Romania (DUHR), said on 4 April that his party will support the opposition coalition of the Democratic Convention in filing a single candidate for the presidential elections. It will also campaign vigorously against the NSF-dominated Senate's "scandalous decision" not to have local observers to monitor the elections. Just as the DUHR greeted Moldova's declaration of independence, so will it support the idea of Moldova's union with Romania, Domokos told local media. (Mihai Sturdza) UKRAINIAN, ROMANIAN LEADERS CONFER. The chairman of Ukraine's parliament, Leonid Plyushch, said on 3 April in Bucharest that 135,000 Romanians and 350,000 Moldavians live on Ukrainian territory. Some 242,000 live in Northern Bukovina, which before 1940 was Romanian territory. Plyushch invited President Ion Iliescu to visit Ukraine and told him that bilateral relations could take a bad turn if territorial questions were viewed through historical blinders while neglecting the actual situation, local media reported. On 5 April Iliescu told ITAR-TASS that the conflict in the Dniestr region is caused by the infringement on Moldova's sovereignty through the intervention of a foreign army. (Mihai Sturdza) US-ROMANIAN TRADE AGREEMENT. In Bucharest on 3 April US ambassador John R. Davis, Jr., participated in the signing of the new Romanian-American trade agreement. When the legislatures of both countries have approved the agreement, Romania will regain its Most-Favored-Nation status. (Mihai Sturdza) LATVIAN BORDER GUARDS TAKE OVER PATROL OF RIGA HARBOR. Deputy Commander of the Latvian Border Guards Viktors Sviklis told Diena on 3 April that henceforth Latvian border guards will check traffic and passengers at the Riga harbor. Passengers going to CIS states would, in addition, have to pass the Russian border guards in Latvia and their passports would also be stamped accordingly. Sviklis said that services of Russian border guards would be used until Latvia forms its own coast guard. Currently there are about 4000 Russian--i.e. former USSR--border guards in Latvia. Their commander, Valentin Gaponenko, said that some of them would be transferred in the near future to Kaliningrad and St. Petersburg. (Dzintra Bungs) STRIKE POSSIBLE IN NARVA. Workers at two large electric power stations in northeastern Estonia have warned officials that they may strike to protest Estonia's draft constitution and citizenship law, BNS reported on 3 April. The workers at the Narva and Balti stations hope miners and other non-Estonian workers in the area will join the strike. The same day, the chief engineer for another state station, Estonian Energy, said the strike would not hit the economy very hard. Jaak Marens told BNS that the threat was "an attempt to fool the public." (Riina Kionka) EC TO ALLOCATE 15 MILLION ECUS TO LATVIA. On 2 April Latvian and EC representatives signed a memorandum expressing EC readiness to allocate 15 million ecus to Latvia under its PHARE program to further privatization and restructuring of Latvia's enterprises, Diena reports. Some of the funds are also to be used for reforming Latvia's financial system and educational programs. (Dzintra Bungs) POLAND LIFTS TEMPORARY BAN ON GERMAN CARS. On 4 April Poland has ended a brief ban on all Trabant and Wartburg cars crossing over from Germany. Warsaw issued a ban the day before, complaining that many of the small, polluting cars manufactured in the former East Germany are being dumped in Poland. According to German border officials, the sudden ban came as a surprise and caused traffic jams at several border points. German Radio claimed the ban ended after the German embassy in Warsaw intervened. Western wire services carried the story. (Wladyslaw Minkiewicz) [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Carla Thorson and Charles Trumbull (END) The RFE/RL Daily Report is produced by the RFE/RL Research Institute (a division of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty Inc.) in Munich, Germany, with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available Monday through Friday, except holidays, at approximately 0800 US Eastern Time (1400 Central European Time) by fax, post, or e-mail. The report is also posted daily on the SOVSET computer network. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: In USA: Mr. Jon Lodeesen or Mr. Brian Reed RFE/RL, Inc., 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036. Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6900 fax: (202) 457-6992 or -202-828-8783; or in Europe: Mr. David L. Troyanek or Ms. Helga Hofer Publications Department, RFE/RL Research Institute Oettingenstrasse 67 8000 Munich 22 Telephone: (-49 89) 2102-2631 or -2642 fax: (-49 89) 2102-2648
write to us
with your comments and suggestions.