Live all you can: it's a mistake not to. It doesn't so much matter what you do in particular, so long as you have your life. If you haven't had that what have you had? - Henry James
RFE/RL Daily Report

No. 26, 07 February 1992





SUCCESSOR STATES TO THE USSR

FRANCE BECOMES FORUM FOR WARNING BY YELTSIN. Russian President
Boris Yeltsin used his meetings in France on 6-February to make
an urgent plea for aid. "The delay in the international community's
aid to Russia is becoming dangerous," Yeltsin said. "If Russia
fails in its reforms, notably the economic ones, a dictator will
arise. Neither Russia nor the international community can allow
a dictator to appear," Western agencies reported. (Suzanne Crow)


ACADEMICIAN WARNS YELTSIN OF ANTI-DEMOCRATIC COUNTER REVOLUTION.
Writing in Izvestiya on 5-February, Academician Stanislav Shatalin
said hard line communists and extreme Russian nationalists were
currently preparing an anti-democratic counter-revolution in
Russia. He said some of these people pretended to be "democrats"
and had found their way into Russian government institutions.
Shatalin also complained that "the system of democratic structures"
was not properly developed in the country. The academician criticized
Yeltsin for failing "to become a guarantor of the constitution
and human rights." Shatalin also said that in introducing economic
reforms, the Russian government had strongly underestimated the
risk of social upheavals, which could be used by reactionaries
for their own purposes. (Vera Tolz)

CIS NUCLEAR CONTROL. In separate conversations, leaders of the
four CIS republics possessing nuclear arms have assured US officials
that all strategic nuclear missiles outside of Russia will be
disabled within three years and eliminated within seven years,
The Washington Post reported on 6-February. The unofficial plan
was disclosed by US Undersecretary of State Reginald Bartholomew
during testimony on 5-February before the Senate Armed Services
Committee. (Stephen Foye)

SHAPOSHNIKOV IN PARIS. Accompanying Boris Yeltsin on his diplomatic
mission to France, CIS Commander in Chief Evgenii Shaposhnikov
told ITAR-TASS on 6-February that talks on defense issues had
been amicable and that military interaction between the two countries
would be increased. Shaposhnikov repeated that the CIS might
require foreign technical assistance in dismantling nuclear warheads
and said that efforts were being made to improve living conditions
for nuclear scientists who might be tempted to take their expertise
overseas. (Stephen Foye)

REVELATIONS ON NUCLEAR WEAPONS PRODUCTION. An engineer who was
formerly involved in the assembly of nuclear weapons said in
Komsomolskaya pravda on 6-February that the Soviet arsenal was
put together in secret cities by technicians working virtually
without protection against radiation. His account was summarized
by Reuters on 6-February. According to Aleksandr Minaev, production
facilities in "invisible cities" like Sverdlovsk-44 and Chelyabinsk-70
averaged about 30 warheads a month into the early 1960's. He
said that workers who complained about radiation exposure were
told that soldiers had to endure their fate in silence. (Stephen
Foye)

SPENDING ON CONVERSION. Mikhail Bazhanov, head of Russia's State
Committee on Conversion, told reporters on 6-February that savings
from disarmament should be allocated to convert defense industries
to civilian production. His remarks were summarized by Western
agencies later that day. Bazhanov said that the government was
doing nothing to promote conversion, but that Russia was prepared
to sell stockpiled arms as a means of aiding the process. He
said that his committee had been tasked primarily not with selling
arms, however, but with finding investors willing to finance
conversion. He also said that American, Japanese, and German
firms had looked at some Russian defense plants, but that there
had been few offers of investment. (Stephen Foye)

TURKISH-RUSSIAN FRIENDSHIP ACCORD. Russian Foreign Minister Andrei
Kozyrev and Turkish Foreign Minister Hikmet Cetin signed a friendship
and cooperation agreement on 4-February in Istanbul. Following
the signing, Kozyrev said that Russia could learn from Turkey's
experience in moving from a state-dominated economy to a free-market
system. (Suzanne Crow)

RUSSIAN OIL EXPORTS CUT. According to the International Energy
Agency, Russian oil exports dropped by nearly one half during
the first three weeks of January, The Financial Times of 6-February
reported. Exports slipped from one million barrels a day in December
to 600,000 barrels a day in January. The drop was attributed
to the Russian government's review of export licencses. The review
was promised at the end of November, but many shippers are still
waiting for the award of licenses for 1992. Tankers are being
held up, especially at Black Sea ports. (Keith Bush)

PRESS LAW COMES INTO FORCE IN RUSSIA. The law on mass media,
adopted by the Russian parliament in December, came into force
on 6-February, ITAR-TASS reported that day. The law has been
criticized in the Russian press for being more restrictive than
similar all-Union legislation adopted in 1990. On 23-December,
Izvestiya published an open letter written by four Moscow lawyers
who complained that parliamentary amendments limited freedom
of the press. The letter called on Yeltsin not to sign the law
as approved by the Russian parliament. According to ITAR-TASS,
some of these objections were taken into account, and the law
was revised before Yeltsin agreed to sign it, and Komsomolskaya
Pravda of 25-January called the new text of the law, "liberal."
(Vera Tolz)

ROSSIISKAYA GAZETA FINED. The Russian Constitutional Court has
fined the Russian Federation Supreme Soviet newspaper, Rossiiskaya
gazeta, 500 rubles. According to Radio Mayak of 5-February, the
action was taken because the newspaper failed to publish the
Court's decision on the unconstitutional nature of Yeltsin's
decree merging the MVD and the KGB. According to the court's
ruling the decision was to be published by all periodicals that
had earlier reported Yeltsin's decree. (Rossiiskaya gazeta usually
does not allow any criticism of Yeltsin's policies.) (Vera Tolz)


NO MONEY FOR INVESTIGATION OF CIRCUM-STANCES OF ATTEMPTED AUGUST
COUP. Deputy Procurator General of the Russian Federation, in
charge of the criminal investigation of the circumstances of
the August putsch, Evgenii Lisov, warned that there was not enough
money for his team to continue its work, "Vesti" reported on
6-February. Lisov said that if the investigation did not get
financial support in the near future, the investigation of the
circumstances of the putsch would have to be stopped. (Vera Tolz)


KEMEROVO SOVIET IN OPPOSITION TO RUSSIAN LEADERSHIP. At a session
of the Kemerovo Oblast Soviet on 5-February, its chairman, Aman
Tuleev, said he intended to resign from his post in protest against
the Russian government's economic reforms. Tuleev said the reforms
would lead to the impoverishment of the Oblast population, especially
the Kuzbass miners. Russian TV reported that the Soviet rejected
Tuleev's resignation but supported his condemnation of the reforms
and "in effect, turned itself into an opposition to the Russian
leadership." The Soviet demanded that Yeltsin and Khasbulatov
immediately come to Kuzbass for negotiations. (Vera Tolz)

UKRAINIAN PARLIAMENT ON CRIMEAN ISSUE. The Ukrainian Supreme
Soviet on 6-February examined the recent resolution of the Russian
Supreme Soviet on Crimea's transfer to Ukraine in 1954, Ukrinform-TASS
reported. In January, Russian lawmakers called for an examination
of the legality of the transfer by both Russia and Ukraine. The
Ukrainian Supreme Soviet has now responded with a statement saying
that such actions could destabilize the social and political
situation in Ukraine and Russia. Further, the statement says
that the resolution is in violation of several Ukrainian-Russian
accords and Article 5 of the 8-December agreement creating the
CIS. (Roman Solchanyk)

RUSSIAN LAWMAKERS POSTPONE REVIEW OF CRIMEA'S STATUS. One of
the Russian parliamentary committees examining the legality of
Crimea's transfer to Ukraine has requested more time to study
the issue, ITAR-TASS reported on 6-February. According to Western
agencies, a report will be submitted to lawmakers on 19-February.
The Russian parliament also decided to create a special commission
of deputies and representatives from the Russian Ministry of
External Affairs to study all aspects of decisions taken in 1954.
(Roman Solchanyk)

KRAVCHUK ON ETHNIC GERMANS. Ukrainian President Leonid Kravchuk
told a press conference in Kiev on 6-February that the return
of ethnic Germans to their traditional homelands in Ukraine would
constitute a "restoration of historical and human justice," Ukrinform-TASS
and Radio Kiev reported. The Ukrainian leader said that he did
not think that the resettlement of Germans in the Crimea would
exacerbate the already difficult situation there. (Roman Solchanyk)


GAMSAKHURDIA WRITES TO YELTSIN. Deposed Georgian President Zviad
Gamsakhurdia has written to Russian President Boris Yeltsin asking
him to make his position clear on the recent unrest in Georgia,
Interfax reported on 6-February. Gamsakhurdia reportedly called
on Yeltsin and the Russian government to appeal to the UN and
the international community to save the Georgian people from
"catastrophe." He repeated the argument that he considered himself
the legitimate, elected ruler of Georgia. Gamsakhurdia criticized
the Russian leadership for what he called "silent approval" of
the moves by the Georgian opposition. (Carla Thorson)

SHEVARDNADZE AGAINST TRANSFER OF SOUTH OSSETIA TO RUSSIA. According
to Radio Rossii of 6-February, in an interview on Georgian TV
Eduard Shevardnadze came out against the unification of South
Ossetia with Russia, describing such a step as a violation of
the territorial integrity of Georgia. In a recent referendum
South Ossetians voted overwhelmingly in favor of such a transfer.
(Ann Sheehy)

NAZARBAEV ON DISARMAMENT, TURKIC COMMONWEALTH. Kazakh President
Nursultan Nazarbaev said, in an interview in the Austrian daily
Die Presse of 6-February, that the West should understand that
Boris Yeltsin does not speak for Kazakhstan on nuclear disarmament
matters, and Yeltsin's discussions with US President George Bush
can only be regarded as an initiative. Nazarbaev also objected
to Yeltsin's apparent agreement to allow the United States an
advantage in numbers of nuclear warheads. Asked about the possibility
of a commonwealth of Turkic states, Nazarbaev said that such
a grouping would not conflict with membership in the CIS. He
added that Kazakhstan wants to reestablish its role as a meeting
ground between Europe and Asia. (Bess Brown)

COLORADO FIRM TO HELP MINE UZBEK GOLD. The Colorado-based Newmont
Mining Corporation has announced plans to sign a joint venture
agreement with Uzbekistan to mine gold, according to Western
agencies on 6-February. The US firm will help set up leaching
facilities to process low-grade tailings at the Muruntau mine,
which was identified by a Newmont official as possibly the most
productive gold mine in the world. The joint venture, which could
raise the mine's productivity by 20%, is to be allowed to dispose
of the gold as it wishes, at world market prices; Uzbekistan
has promised the venture tax-exempt status until the original
investment is recovered. (Bess Brown)

MUSLIM STATES JOIN ECONOMIC COOPERATION ORGANIZATION. Reuter
reported on 6-February that Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan
have been admitted to the Economic Cooperation Organization,
which formerly comprised Iran, Turkey and Pakistan. Iranian foreign
minister Ali Akbar Velayati was quoted as saying after a meeting
of the organization in Ankara that Tajikistan has expressed interest
in joining but has not yet submitted a formal application. (Bess
Brown)

TAJIK OPPOSITION WON'T PERMIT ANTI-RUSSIAN SPEECHES. The Tajik
opposition Islamic and Democratic Parties and the Rastokhez Popular
Front have announced that they will not allow anti-Russian speeches
at a 12-February ceremony commemorating the victims of violence
in Dushanbe in 1990. Their statement was reported by Radio Mayak,
quoting Interfax, on 6-February. The precautions of the opposition
are presumably a reaction to charges by Tajik government officials
that opposition parties want to drive all Russians out of Tajikistan.
(Bess Brown)

MOLDOVA READY TO TRADE SHARE OF EXTERNAL DEBT WITH RUSSIA. Moldovan
Premier Valeriu Muravsky has asked Moldovan deputies to allow
Moldova to give Russia its share of the national wealth of the
former USSR in exchange for Russia paying Moldova's share of
the USSR's external debt, Moldovapres reported on 6-February.
Muravsky said such a step was necessary because at present Moldova
could not pay its share of the debt. Not all the deputies reacted
favorably, and it was decided to debate the matter at a special
sitting of parliament. (Ann Sheehy)

MOLDOVA ADVANCES TO UN MEMBERSHIP. On 5-February, the UN Security
Council unanimously recommended that Moldova be admitted to membership
of the United Nations, ITAR-TASS reported on 6-February. (Ann
Sheehy)

MOLDOVA REFUSES TO GIVE SURPLUS CASH TO KALMYKIA, CHECHENO-INGUSHETIA.
According to the National Bank of Moldova, large supplies of
rubles have accumulated in the republic because inhabitants of
neighboring Ukraine have been trying to get rid of their rubles,
as have local inhabitants in anticipation of the introduction
of a separate Moldovan currency, Radio Mayak reported on 6-February.
Moldova has politely refused, how-ever, to help Kalmykia and
Checheno-Ingushetia, who are short of ruble notes. (Ann Sheehy)


BALTIC STATES

QUAYLE REOPENS US EMBASSIES IN TALLINN, RIGA. During his visit
to Estonia and Latvia on 6-February, the US Vice President presided
over the reopening of the US embassies in Tallinn and Riga, Reuter
and BNS reported. In both capitals, he said the US would like
a swift withdrawal of troops of the former USSR from the Baltic
States and signed accords authorizing American Peace Corps volunteers
to work in Estonia and Latvia. Quayle also pledged extra US aid
worth $18 million for the Baltics, which brings the total amount
of US aid to the area to $76 million since September 1991. Quayle
is also delivering emergency medical aid. On 7-February he goes
on to Vilnius. (Dzintra Bungs)

ESTONIAN AMBASSADOR SURPRISED. Estonia's Ambassador to Russia
Juri Kahn told BNS on 5-February that he was surprised to learn
how former Estonian government Minister Artur Kuznetsov was named
to be Moscow's ambassador to Tallinn (see Daily Report, 5 February).
Kahn, who was accredited by Russian President Boris Yeltsin that
day, noted that such undiplomatic "incidents" "may produce unhealthy
results" in a time when Russia and Estonia are beginning to develop
good-neighborly relations. (Riina Kionka)

6,000 BALTS WORKING IN FINLAND. Some 6,000 residents of the Baltic
States are currently working in Finland, according to ETA of
February 6, citing the Finnish Trade Union Center. Trade Union
Center President Lauri Ihalainen said the unions want foreign
workers to be registered, but support equal pay and social protection
for them. Ihalainen's remarks come at a time when over 10% of
Finland's residents are unemployed. (Riina Kionka)

ACCREDITATION OF CHINESE ENVOY TO LATVIA DELAYED. Radio Riga
reported on 5-February that China had postponed the presentation
of credentials of its envoy to Latvia, scheduled for that day
in Riga. The Latvian Foreign Minister Janis Jurkans told the
press that this step was probably prompted by Latvia's decision
on 29 January to establish consular relations with Taiwan, a
decision that China protested, and said that he had explained
to Chinese diplomats that Latvia needs economic ties with Taiwan.
The Chinese replied, Jurkans said, that they would wait to see
how Latvia complied with its accords with China. On 6 February
China protested again against Latvia's establishment of consular
ties with Taiwan, an RFE/RL correspondent in New York reported.
(Dzintra Bungs)

LATVIA ASKS CIS TO RECALL ITS SOLDIERS. On 5 February the Latvian
Supreme Council adopted an "invitation" to the CIS governments
and legislatures to recall without delay soldiers and officers
of the former USSR armed forces and their families who are currently
stationed or living in Latvia. The document also points out that
Latvia has recognized the independence of all the CIS states
and has called home all of the troops originating in Latvia who
were serving in the armed forces of the former Soviet Union,
BNS reported. (Dzintra Bungs)

LANDSBERGIS TO VISIT GERMANY. At the invitation of Bundestag
President Rita Suessmuth, Chairman of the Lithuanian Supreme
Council Vytautas Landsbergis will visit Germany from 10 to 13
February, the RFE/RL correspondent in Bonn reported on 6 February.
He will hold talks with Chancellor Helmut Kohl, Foreign Minister
Hans-Dietrich Genscher, and other ministers as well as the leaders
of German political parties. He will also visit the state of
Baden-Wuerttemberg. (Saulius Girnius)

CONDEMNATION OF POLISH ARTICLE. The Lithuanian parliament press
spokesman, Audrius Azubalis, issued a statement, read over Radio
Lithuania on 7 February. The text strongly condemned an article
from Warsaw in the journal of the Polish Society of Lithuania
Magazyn Wilenski as totally misrepresenting Lithuanian events.
The article claimed that Lithuania already in December 1990 was
planning to suspend local governments, starting with those in
ethnically Polish areas. In January 1991 the Soviet military
responded by occupying important posts during which "the first,
fortunately not numerous, victims fell." According to the article,
"Landsberg" had also insulted the Polish authorities by using
Poland only as a transit route on a visit to the US. Azubalis
noted that Landsbergis had informed the Poles about his visit
and the Polish authorities had not expressed any interest in
a meeting. (Saulius Girnius)



CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE VANCE THANKS GENSCHER FOR HELP IN
UN PEACE PROGRESS. On 7 February, UN special envoy for the Yugoslav
area Cyrus Vance, thanked German Foreign Minister Hans-Dietrich
Genscher for persuading Croatian President Franjo Tudjman to
confirm his "full and unconditional" backing for the UN peace
plan (see Daily Report of 6 February). Austrian TV on 6 February
said that EC negotiator Lord Carrington had obtained support
from Muslim, Serb, and Croat leaders in Bosnia and Herzegovina
for a peace conference next week to deal with tensions in that
troubled multi-ethnic republic. In Belgrade, Serbian President
Slobodan Milosevic said that the EC would have to drop its economic
sanctions against Serbia if that republic is to continue participating
in EC-sponsored peace talks. Serbia has long had doubts about
the Community's impartiality in the civil war and prefers to
concentrate on the UN peace process instead. (Patrick Moore)


FEDERAL ARMY SHELLS OSIJEK . . . Austrian TV reported on 6 February
that Serbian-dominated federal forces shelled the eastern Croatian
town of Osijek for the first time since the 3 January cease-fire
began, forcing residents to head for bomb shelters. In Zagreb,
Slovenian President Milan Kucan arrived for a ceremony to mark
the establishment of formal diplomatic relations between his
republic and Croatia. Ties have been strained by disputes over
the future of the atomic power plant at Krsko, Slovenia, which
Croatia hopes will continue operating but which Slovenia hopes
to shut down, as well as by other issues. (Patrick Moore)

. . . WHILE THE AIR FORCE BUZZES SKOPJE. In Macedonia, federal
air force planes flew low over Skopje as Macedonian police continued
to blockade army bases to force federal troops to leave their
equipment in Macedonia when they evacuate that republic. The
7 February Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung quotes Macedonia's
information minister as telling a German conference on 6 February
that his republic is being blockaded by Serbia and Greece in
a concerted action. He added that the army is wrecking military
hospitals and other facilities prior to its departure. Macedonia
says it needs the installations and that it has paid good money
for them over the years. Finally, Reuter quoted Bujar Bukoshi,
the prime minister of Kosovo's exile government, as saying that
Serbian repression against Kosovo's 90%-plus Albanian majority
is "escalating daily." (Patrick Moore)

TURKEY RECOGNIZES FOUR EX-YUGOSLAV REPUBLICS. Western agencies
reported on 6-February from Ankara that Turkey has recognized
Croatia, Slovenia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Macedonia. It
joins Bulgaria as the only country to recognize all four republics
that had sought recognition from the EC. Brussels recognized
Zagreb and Ljubljana, but asked Sarajevo to hold a referendum
first. Greece effectively blocked Macedonia's bid. Athens has
protested Sofia's and Ankara's moves. (Patrick Moore)

ITALIAN HIGHWAY THROUGH SLOVENIA. Reuter reported from Rome that
Italy is considering building a major highway to Hungary via
Slovenia, as well as expanding pipeline and rail links. Italy
has repeatedly made it clear that it wants to return to its former
areas of influence in the Danube-Alpine-Adriatic region and not
leave those places largely to German and Austrian interests.
(Patrick Moore)

GERMAN-HUNGARIAN TREATY SIGNED. Chancellor Helmut Kohl and Prime
Minister Jozsef Antall signed on 6 February in Budapest a treaty
to regulate their basic political and economic relations, MTI
reported. The treaty is valid for ten years and crowns the already
good relations between Germany and Hungary. Kohl and Antall also
discussed the problem of the Hungarian debt to the former GDR,
possible weapons sales to Hungary from ex-GDR stockpiles, and
Hungarian support for German UN Security Council membership.
Antall promised compensation to Germans deported after World
War II. Kohl said Germany is supporting Hungary's aspiration
to join the EC after 1995. (Karoly Okolicsanyi)

POLAND'S OLSZEWSKI TO ASK FOR SPECIAL POWERS. PAP and Western
media reported on 6-February that Prime Minister Jan Olszewski
said he will ask the Sejm to grant his government emergency powers
enabling him to govern by decree. His priorities, he said, are
the economy and the reform of the state administration. Olszewski
said that "Poland and its economy are in a state of collapse"
and promised to present to the Sejm a rescue program shortly,
possibly next week when the Sejm is scheduled to debate the economic
reform. A government statement released on 5 February said that
"the gains from the market reform strategy launched in 1989/1990
have been more modest than originally predicted, while social
costs and burdens have proved to be greater than expected." The
government, therefore, intends to temper the effects of the "shock
therapy" with a greater measure of state interventionism in order
to halt the present recession and decrease the rising unemployment
rate of nearly 12%. (Roman Stefanowski)

ROMANIAN ELECTION CAMPAIGN DRAWS TO A CLOSE. The nationwide local
election campaign ended on 6 February, 48 hours before election
day. Opinion polls indicate that 82% of the eligible voters will
participate in the balloting. Observers from 15 countries will
monitor the proceedings. (Crisula Stefanescu)

ROMANIAN YOUTH HIT BY UNEMPLOYMENT. The Ministry of Labor and
Social Protection reports that 47% of Romania's 320,000 unemployed
are under 25, and 12% between 25 and 29 years, Rompres said on
6 February. (Crisula Stefanescu)

BULGARIAN POLICE BATTLE "TELEPHONE TERRORISM." In the last few
months the Bulgarian media have been running more and more stories
about bomb threats, dubbed "telephone terrorism." Police took
all calls seriously, but in no case has a bomb been found. Initially
most calls went to schools and apparently originated from pupils.
On 4 February, however, a bomb warning led to turmoil in the
hospital of the Military Medical Academy. This prompted the Ministry
of Internal Affairs to issue an emotional appeal to the public,
quoted by BTA, not to allow or tolerate such acts. On 6 February
a bomb alarm disrupted the Court of Justice in Vidin. Local police
told BTA the voice of the caller had been recorded and the booth
from which he called had been identified. (Rada Nikolaev) [As
of 1200 CET] Compiled by Carla Thorson & Patrick Moore








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