One must learn by doing the thing; though you think you know it, you have no certainty until you try. - Sophocles
RFE/RL Daily Report

No. 23, 04 February 1992





SUCCESSOR STATES TO THE USSR

VALUE-ADDED TAX RATES REDUCED. The Russian Supreme Soviet Presidium
and the Russian government have agreed on a reduction in the
rate of value-added tax for certain products, according-to ITAR-TASS
and Interfax of 3-February. The rates-will be lowered at the
point of sale from 28% to 15% for flour, pasta, cereals, milk,
yoghurt, and cooking oil. The tax will remain at 28% at the point
of industrial processing. State-owned catering facilities will
be totally exempt from the tax. One agency reported that the
measure would reduce tax revenues by 25-30 billion rubles in
1992. There was no-indication-that compensatory revenue would
be derived from other sources. [The move represents a serious
retreat from Gaidar's stabilization blueprint.] (Keith-Bush)


GAIDAR'S PROGRESS REPORT. At a news conference in Moscow on 3-February
reported by CIS and Western agencies, Russian Deputy Prime Minister
Egor Gaidar put the best face on a catastrophic situation. He
reasserted his intention to remain in office; warned of "hard
times" for the next two years at least; and hoped that Russia
might gain full membership in the IMF as early as April, and
thereby qualify for a stabilization fund of some $6 billion.
He also set the target date for internal convertibility for the
ruble-at a suggested exchange rate of 25-30 rubles to the dollar-
at the end of 1993 [previous target dates have been-January-1992
and-January 1993]. (Keith-Bush)

RUSSIA'S PRIVATIZATION PLANS. On the fringe of the World Economic
Forum at Davos Switzerland, Anatolii Chubais, chairman of the
Russian Committee for the Management of State Property, outlined
the federation's plans for privatization in 1992 to Western agencies
on 3-January. A minimum of 75% of all retail stores, i.e. about
110,000 stores, will be transferred to private hands. Foreign
capital will not be allowed to take part in auctions or place
tenders because stores would then go for unreasonably low prices,
owing to the current exchange rates. Chubais said "we aim to
create a solid middle class in Russia which will provide a strong
basis for social stability." (Keith Bush)

SOBCHAK CRITICIZES YELTSIN.
St. Petersburg Mayor Anatolii Sobchak has again criticized
Russian President Boris Yeltsin's reform program. In an interview
with the International Herald Tribune on 3-February, Sobchak
said Yeltsin's biggest mistake had been the failure to provide
a true land reform policy. He said the Russian government should
have focused on giving land to anybody prepared to use it. Sobchak
also said Russia's government was making a mistake in letting
military commanders decide which republic they will serve. He
said this risks strengthening the role of the army in politics.
(Vera Tolz)

KHASBULATOV INSISTS ON RIGHT TO CRITICIZE GOVERNMENT. The chairman
of the Russian parliament, Ruslan Khasbulatov said that criticizing
the policies of the Russian government, was one of the most important
prerogatives of his office. Speaking to the association of Russian
farmers in Moscow, Khasbulatov said "we will be tough in our
criticism of government policies, but we will support the government
at critical moments." Khasbulatov also noted that parliament
makes a distinction between President Yeltsin and the government.
Khasbulatov said that he would resign from his post in parliament
before criticizing Yeltsin, ITAR-TASS reported on 3-February.
(Vera Tolz)

SHAPOSHNIKOV SUPPORTS ARMS PLAN. CIS Commander in Chief Evgenii
Shaposhnikov said in Komsomolskaya pravda on 4-February that
he supported arms control proposals recently advanced by Boris
Yeltsin. Shaposhnikov repudiated those critics who say that Moscow
has disarmed itself despite having potential enemies, and said
that Russia and the US are now allies. He said that Yeltsin's
arms control proposals are not based on unilateral concessions.
Shaposhnikov's remarks were summarized by ITAR-TASS on 4-February.
(Stephen Foye)

TURKEY HOSTS BLACK SEA REGIONAL CONFERENCE. Foreign ministers
and deputies from Russia, Ukraine, Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan,
Moldova, Bulgaria, and Romania gathered in Istan-bul on 3-February
to discuss a Black Sea regional economic agreement. The object
is to facilitate and improve trade among states and republics
bordering the Black Sea in the wake of the end of COMECON. The
idea, proposed by President Turgut Ozal of Turkey in 1989, gained
broad support last summer during a Moscow meeting of those interested
countries. Ozal told those assembled in Istanbul yesterday that
he was optimistic that such an organization would promote economic
growth, improve communication and transportation linkages, and
encourage entrepreneurship. (Duncan M. Perry)

YELTSIN TO FRANCE. Russian President Boris Yeltsin will be in
France from 5 to 7-February for meetings with French President
Francois Mitterrand, Foreign Minister Roland Dumas, and Prime
Minster Edith Cresson. Items on the agenda include the signing
of a friendship treaty and several cooperation-agreements, AFP
reported on 3-February. (Suzanne Crow)

ROGACHEV ENVOY TO CHINA. According to "Vesti" on 3-February,
Igor Rogachev has been named Russian ambassador to China. Rogachev,
a career diplomat and expert on Asia, previously served as USSR
Deputy Foreign Minister. He replaces Nikolai Solovev as ambassador
to China. (Suzanne Crow)

LUKIN COMMENTS ON US POST. Russia's new ambassador to the United
States, Vladimir Lukin, says he will do everything he can to
"secure America's maximum assistance" in Russia's efforts to
"consolidate democracy." He also said it is important to convince
the US public that Russia is committed to human rights. Boris
Yeltsin announced Lukin's appointment on 1-February at the United
Nations. (Suzanne Crow)

GORBACHEV MEETS JOURNALISTS. Former Soviet President Mikhail
Gorbachev met on 3-February with young journalists and political
scientists, "Vesti" reported that day. Gorbachev blamed the failure
of the former Union republics to sign a Union treaty on the policies
of the Russian leadership and warned that reactionary forces
in Russia could soon increase their activities. The former president
also admitted his own past mistakes. Gorbachev said that in late
1990-early 1991 he should have sided firmly with the democrats.
[At the time, Gorbachev appointed to top positions Yanaev, Pugo
and other conservatives who later led the putsch against him.]
(Vera Tolz)

RUSSIAN LAWMAKERS TO INVESTIGATE THE ROLE OF THE KGB.
On 4-February, the Russian Supreme Soviet is expected to
hear a report from its parliamentary commission on the role of
the KGB in the August coup attempt. Last week, it was announced
that the hearing would be open to the public. However, on 3-February,
the commission's chairman, Lev Ponomarev told the "Ostankino"
TV news that the KGB and Supreme Soviet Chairman Ruslan Khasbulatov
are effectively preventing a thorough investigation of the KGB's
role. Ponomarev also alleged that Khasbulatov had suppressed
the findings of another commission, which was appointed by Mikhail
Gorbachev to investigate the KGB. (Julia Wishnevsky)

UNION OF THEATER WORKERS SURVIVES THE SOVIET UNION. At the plenary
session of the USSR Union of Theater Workers, held on 3-February,
the organization was renamed the "International Confederation
of Theater Unions," Russian TV reported The Leningrad actor Kirill
Lavrov was reelected the Confederation's chairman. Like all creative
unions (except the Writer's Union), the Confederation continues
to embrace the theater unions of all the former Union republics,
including the Baltic states. [According to Chas pik, No. 51,
1991, the Lithuanian leader Vytautas Landsbergis still remains
a member of the USSR Union of Composers, for instance.] (Julia
Wishnevsky)

KRAVCHUK ON UKRAINIAN-RUSSIAN RELATIONS. Ukrainian President
Leonid Kravchuk, in an interview with the German weekly Der Spiegel
published on 3-February, criticized "chauvinistic forces" in
Russia who do not wish to understand Ukraine's claim to independence.
The Ukrainian leader said that Ukraine is being subjected to
pressure to abandon its independence. The widely-held view in
Russia that Ukraine is a part of Russia must change, he asserted.
(Roman Solchanyk)

LENGTH OF MILITARY DUTY IN UKRAINE CUT TO 18 MONTHS. Among the
items on the agenda of the current session of the Ukrainian Supreme-Soviet
is a new round of military and security legislation. According
to a Radio Moscow report of 2-February, the parliament has already
agreed to reduce the length of military duty for conscripts serving
in the ground forces of Ukraine from two years to eighteen months,
and for sailors from three to two years. The rank of marshal
was abolished. The parliamentarians are also expected to pass
a law pertaining to conscientious objectors. (Kathy Mihalisko)

REFERENDUM CAMPAIGN IN THE CRIMEA. Another campaign has begun
in the Crimea to gather signatures in support of a referendum
on the peninsula's territorial status, the TV news program "Novosti"
reported on 4-February. This is the second time that the Republican
Movement of Crimea has sought to push through a referendum. The
referendum campaign at the end of last year was ruled to be illegal
because there was no referendum law on the books at the time.
(Roman Solchanyk)

CAMPAIGN TO REHABILITATE THE UKRAINIAN INSURGENT ARMY. The Lvov
Oblast Soviet has passed a resolution asking the Supreme Soviet
in Kiev to recognize "the national liberation movement" from
the 1930s to the 1950s as a "just struggle for Ukrainian independence,"
Radio Rossii reported on 3-February. In the meantime, the Lvov
authorities have decided to extend certain amenities to those
repressed for their participation in this movement, including
former members of the Ukrainian Insurgent Army (UPA). (Roman
Solchanyk)

TROOP STRENGTH IN BELARUS MAY BE REDUCED BY HALF. A group of
experts from the Belarusian Supreme Soviet has done a survey
to determine the status of troops on the territory of Belarus,
BelTA-TASS said on 3-February. These currently number 160,000,
a figure that includes 60,000 personnel working on contract.
It is hoped that the total number will be reduced by 1994 to
80,000, including strategic forces subordinate to joint CIS command.
The experts believe that an annual military budget for Belarus
of 8 billion rubles will be adequate, although the republic cannot
afford to buy more weapons or up-to-date technology. (Kathy Mihalisko)


CENTRAL ASIAN FOREIGN RELATIONS. On 3-February, the US Embassy
in Alma-Ata opened. It is the first foreign embassy in the Kazakh
capital, according to KazTAG-TASS. Also on 3-February, ITAR-TASS
reported that Turkmenistan has submitted a request for admission
to the UN. The other four Central Asian republics have already
had their applications for admission approved by the Security
Council and are awaiting the resumption of the General Assembly
session at the end of February in order to formally join the
UN. (Bess-Brown)

DNIESTER SITUATION. On 1-February, a Moldovan kolkhoz chairman
from the left bank of the Dniester was shot and killed in his
car by a "border guard unit" of the "Dniester republic" near
Dubasari. On 31-January, 7 Moldovan policemen in the right-bank
city of Bendery were beaten up by Russian Cossacks and "Dniester
republic" guardsmen who had crossed over from the left bank.
On 3-February, a Moldovan police officer was shot and wounded
near Dubasari by the guardsmen. The incidents, reported by Moldovapres
on those dates, typically occurred when Moldovan policemen and
civilians refused to stop their cars for inspection by guardsmen
of the "Dniester republic" whose authority Moldova-or any other
CIS member state-does not recognize. (Vladimir Socor)

RUSSIAN ORTHODOX-ROMAN CATHOLIC RELATIONS. Moskovskie novosti,
No. 4 published statements by archbishop Francesco Colasunno,
the Vatican representative in Moscow, and by Metropolitan Cyrill,
the chairman of the Foreign Relations Department of the Moscow
Patriarchate concerning the tense relations between the Russian
Orthodox and Roman Catholic Churches. Both hierarchs expressed
hope that current contradictions would be resolved soon. Confirming
the Russian Orthodox Church's intentions, ITAR-TASS reported
on 3-February that a Russian Orthodox delegation will participate
in a meeting with representatives of the Vatican on 2-3-March.(Oxana
Antic)

BALTIC STATES

ESTONIAN EXCEPTIONALISM? Unlike Latvia and Lithuania, where joint
communiques were issued at the end of meetings with Russian Deputy
Prime-Min-ister Sergei Shakhrai, Estonia reached no agreement
on troop withdrawals, BNS reported on 3-February. Both sides
said the recent government changeover in Tallinn made it impossible
for the Estonian delegation to conduct official talks, but other
sources suggest that the Estonians, unlike their southerly neighbors,
may have hardened their position. (Riina Kionka)

DENMARK, GERMANY URGE BALTIC RESCUE PLAN.
On 3-February in Brussels German and Danish Foreign Ministers
Hans-Dietrich Genscher and Uffe Ellemann-Jensen urged the EC
to consider a short-term economic rescue package for the
Baltic States, an RFE/RL correspondent in Brussels reports.
The ministers agreed to order a commission investigation into
the needs of the Baltic States. The EC allocated 250,000 ecus
of aid to Estonia to ferry 500-tons of sugar from Copenhagen
to Tallinn. A British official said that the EC was reluctant
to sign any association-type agreements with the Baltic States
because of their poor level of development. The trade agreement
with Lithuania signed on 31-January was a sort of "half-way house"
to the association agreements signed with Poland, Hungary, and
Czechoslovakia. (Saulius-Girnius)

JUNDZIS ON LATVIA'S ARMED FORCES. Latvia's Defense Minister Talavs
Jundzis told Radio Riga on 31-January that he expects the Latvian
army to consist of 8,000-9,000 men whose duties would be defensive,
rather than offensive. About half would serve as border guards.
The formation of the army is greatly hampered by the lack of
financial resources (3.5% of Latvia's budget for 1992, which
still has not been approved) and weapons. He said that Latvia
hopes to obtain rifles and other smaller weapons from the departing
Northwestern Group of Forces as part of the troop withdrawal
accord. Jundzis noted that this would only be equitable, since
the Red Army seized all property and weapons of Latvia's Army
in 1940. (Dzintra Bungs)

LATVIA'S BORDER GUARDS ASSUME DUTIES. Radio Riga reported on
1-February that Latvia's border guards have begun to patrol
their country's borders. In the postwar years these duties were
per-formed by border guards of the former Soviet Union. Initially
the Latvians took over the posts in the western part of the country,
but by the end of 1992 they expect to guard all of Latvia's borders.
Minister of State Janis Dinevics is responsible for recruitment
of and supplies for the border guards. (Dzintra Bungs)

TERLECKAS CONTROVERSY. On 1-February Vytautas Sustaukas, chairman
of the Kaunas chapter of the Lithuanian Freedom League read a
letter on Lithuanian TV to the organization's chairman Antanas
Terleckas, Lithuania's most vocal former political prisoner,
questioning his leadership. The Kaunas chapter called a special
congress which voted to relieve Terleckas of his post, Radio
Lithuania reported on 2-February. Terleckas told the radiothat
he was not worried about the action since the congress was illegal.
The 27-member council, which has to approve the program of a
special congress, was never consulted and at most five council
members supported his dismissal. Terleckas said that the dismissal
was engineered by National Defense Minister Audrius Butkevicius,
whom Terleckas has accused of hindering the formation of Lithuania's
army. (Saulius Girnius)

HUMAN RIGHTS POLL IN ESTONIA. Some 73% of Estonians and 67% of
non-Estonians in the country are not satisfied with their countrymen's
level of respect human rights. According to an EC poll conducted
last October in Eastern European and the former CIS states, the
figures for alleged lack of respect for human rights in Estonia
are among the highest for those polled. Andrus Saar, the EC's
pollster in Estonia and former ECP ideological watchdog at the
audience research section of Estonian Radio, told BNS on 3-February
that the poll results do not mean that human rights are being
abused in Estonia. Instead, Saar said, the results suggest that
the idea of human rights is a highly emotional one in Estonia.
(Riina Kionka)

RFE/RL LATVIAN BROADCASTS FROM RIGA. RFE/RL Latvian Service began
daily broadcasting of its hour-long program on the Radio Riga
UHF channel on 3-February. In preparation for the evening broadcast,
Radio Riga carried several announcements of the broadcasts and
an interview with the service's director Rolfs Ekmanis on 3-February.
RFE/RL is continuing its shortwave broadcasts to Latvia as well.
(Dzintra Bungs)

CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE SERBIAN LEADER SLAMS BABIC. The Serbian-dominated
rump federal Presidency continued on 3-February to pressure the
ethnic Serbian leadership of Croatia's Krajina region to accept
the UN peace plan. Western media quoted Krajina leader Milan
Babic as saying that the military is planning "a coup" against
him because of his refusal to allow UN peace-keeping troops into
Krajina, which he says would be the first step toward reincorporating
it into Croatia. The 4-February New York Times cites Serbia's
representative on the Presidency, Borisav Jovic, as saying of
Babic: "You must understand what crooks we are dealing with.
Babic is so weak that even one policeman would be enough to take
care of him." Jovic added that the Presidency "stands behind
the UN plan." (Patrick Moore)

CROATS CALL ON SERBS TO RETURN TO VUKOVAR TOGETHER. The 4-February
Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung quotes a letter from Vukovar's
Croatian refugees calling on Serbs who fled the town to rejoin
them in resettling it. Before the civil war began Vukovar had
55,000 inhabitants, 50% of whom were Croats and 40% Serbs. Vukovar
witnessed some of the war's fiercest fighting before the federal
army took it from Croatian forces in mid-November. The Croat
civilians say in their letter that "we know that it is impossible
to carve out ethnically pure territories," and add that "we grew
up together, lived and worked together, and now can make a fresh
start together." Serbian authorities have begun resettling Serbian
refugees in some formerly Croatian and Hungarian settlements
in an ef-fort to redraw the ethnic boundaries. (Patrick-Moore)


GENSCHER IN POLAND. German Foreign Minister Hans-Dietrich Genscher
arrived in Poland on 3 February for a two-day official visit
aimed at strengthening political and economic ties between the
two countries, Polish and Western media reported. That evening
Genscher met with President Lech Walesa; the two stressed the
interdependence of their countries and pledged to build on the
friendship treaties ratified last year and "to set the framework
for economic, political, and cultural cooperation after decades
of mistrust." Genscher also met with former Prime Minister Tadeusz
Mazowiecki and will meet incumbent Prime Minister Jan Olszewski,
Foreign Minister Krzysztof Skubiszewski, and Sejm deputies from
the German minority in Poland. (Roman Stefanowski)

PAP CHIEF EDITOR REPLACED. Olszewski has fired the chief editor
of the Polish news agency PAP, Ignacy Rutkiewicz, and appointed
Krzysztof Czabanski to replace him, PAP and Western agencies
report. In 1981 Czabanski became deputy chief editor of the Solidarnosc
weekly and was active in the underground press in the martial
law period. Czabanski says he plans "far-reaching structural
changes" and intends to change PAP, now a government agency,
into "a normal national press agency." Czabanski favors partial
privatization of PAP, with the state holding majority shares
but with very limited government influence. (Roman Stefanowski)


HDF CALLS FOR TV AND RADIO CHAIRMEN TO RESIGN. According to Radio
Budapest on 3-February, the national presidium of the ruling
Hungarian Democratic Forum called on Elemer Hankiss and Csaba
Gombar, the chairmen of the state-run Hungarian Television and
Radio respectively, to resign. The HDF's decision followed a
move by Csaba Gombar to restructure the religious programs of
the radio. According to the new plan, the radio would have broadcast
religious programs on FM only and at different times on each
Sunday, making it very difficult for most people to follow the
schedule. The new plan also made it impossible for ethnic Hungarians
in neighboring countries to receive these programs. (Judith Pataki)


HUNGARIAN MINISTER CALLS FOR TIGHTER VISA REQUIREMENTS. Hungarian
Minister of Internal Affairs Peter Boross urged tighter visa
requirements in order to "stop the wave of refugees" to Hungary.
Addressing a meeting of high-ranking Internal Ministry officials,
Boross said that Hungary has become a target country for refugees
from Asia and Africa, and warned that "measures should be taken
to prevent the emergence of social tensions similar to those
that have occurred in Western Europe since guest workers appeared
there in great numbers." In a related development, Radio Budapest
reported that 251 people were caught by Hungarian border patrols
over the weekend as they tried to enter or leave Hungary illegally,
the majority came from Third World countries. (Edith-Oltay)

MALEV-LOCKHEED JOINT VENTURE. On 3-February the Hungarian airline
Malev and the maintenance division of the US aviation company
Lock-heed formed a joint venture to maintain and overhaul large
aircraft, Radio Budapest reports. Malev officials said that the
venture, to be named Aeroplex of Central Europe, would be half-owned by
each company and based at Budapest's Ferihegy airport. The venture
has a starting capital of about $6 million and is expected to
employ about 1,000 people. It will initially supply maintenance
for Malev's fleet and plans to expand its services to include
other European, Middle Eastern, and African airlines. (Edith
Oltay)

DAIWA CONSIDERING CZECHOSLOVAK INVESTMENTS. On 3-February federal
Prime Minister Marian Calfa received Hajim Watanabe, Vienna representative
of the Japanese Daiwa Securities Company, Ltd., the second largest
investment bank in the world, to discuss the bank's interests
in Czechoslovakia. Watanabe told Calfa that the bank is particularly
interested in long-term investments in the country. Calfa underlined
Czechoslovakia's receptiveness to Japanese investments in the
privatization process in the country and proposed the establishment
of direct contacts at the enterprise level, CSTK reported. (Peter
Matuska)

NEW CZECHOSLOVAK MBAs. On 3-February the first 62-graduates of
the American Institute of Management in Prague were awarded
Master of Business Administration degrees, CSTK reported. The
program is part of a Czechoslovak-American project to train
managers and university professors. US-Ambassador Shirley Temple
Black and federal Finance-Minister Vaclav Klaus were present
at the ceremony.-The institute is administered by the Univ.of
Rochester, which also awarded the degrees. (Peter-Matuska)

CFE INSPECTION TEAM DUE IN CZECHO-SLOVAKIA. On 3-February the
Czechoslovak Defense Ministry told CSTK that a group of German
experts is due to make an inspection of the Czechoslovak military
command in Tabor. The experts will conduct the inspection on
4-February, in connection with the Conventional Forces in Europe
(CFE) treaty. (Peter Matuska)

ROMANIAN MINING UNION CONFEDERATION. Romania's major miners'
unions met on 2-February in the Jiu Valley town of Petrosani
to found the "Mining Union Confederation." Consisting of about
106,000 members, the union aims at strengthening the miners'
position with the government and mining enterprises, Rompres
reported. Miron Cosma, who led the miners in demonstrations in
Bucharest last year, was elected chairman. An conference session
was called for 21-March. (Crisula Stefanescu)

ROMANIAN-TURKISH LINKS ON THE RISE. Foreign Minister Adrian Nastase
is in Istanbul for the Black Sea area conference. Turkey's ambassador
to Bucharest, Yaman Bashkut, told Tineretul liber that relations
between Turkey and Romania are "cordial." He mentioned the growing
number of bilateral political and economic contacts and said
that the chief of Turkey's armed forces will visit Romania this
month. (Crisula Stefanescu)

VATRA ROMANEASCA HOLDS NATIONAL CONFERENCE. The ultranationalist
organization held a national conference in Lugoj at which its steering
committee was joined by a large number of guests, including Josif
Constantin Dragan, a wealthy returned exile and honorary president
of the union. The conference discussed relations with Romanians
abroad, the implications of the local elections, and press-treatment
of the union. The final communique calls for reversing the privatization
law which Vatra Romaneasca considers "unpopular, ambiguous, and
risky for the national well-being," Rompres reports. (Crisula-Stefanescu)


KOZLODUY ONCE MORE. The Bulgarian nuclear plant at Kozloduy is
again causing trouble. In the early hours of 3-February a water
pump at the new 1,000-megawatt reactor no. 6 broke down. The
reactor had to be closed down for an expected two weeks and power
rationing was reinstituted for the population with one-hour cuts
every four hours. As recently as 30-January a similar failure
at reactor 5 caused a brief reduction in output. In both cases
BTA quoted authorities as saying no radioactive leakage was involved.
BTA says reactors 3, 4, and 5 are operating normally (reactors
1 and 2, assessed as particularly unsafe, were closed last fall).
On 4-February German media quoted a federal government official,
Wolfgang von Geldern, just back from Bulgaria, as saying Kozloduy
was a time bomb which should be closed altogether. (Rada-Nikolaev)


PARDON FOR SENTENCED BULGARIAN JOURNALIST. President Zhelyu Zhelev
on 3-February signed a decree pardoning journalist Vladimir Ignatov,
who has been in prison since mid-1989 on a 17-year sentence for
espionage and mis-appropriation of funds. Ignatov was BTA correspondent
in Madrid until July 1989. Lured home by state security, he was
arrested and accused of betraying secrets to Turkish intelligence
services, He admitted having worked for Bulgarian intelligence.
Since early 1990 Bulgarian journalists-have repeat-edly appealed
for a review of the case. Ignatov's wife is an ethnic Turk who
was forced to change her name in the 1984-89 assimilation campaign.
(Rada Nikolaev) [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Carla Thorson &
Charles Trumbull

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