Пользуйтесь, но не злоупотребляйте - таково правило мудрости. Ни возержание, ни излишества не дают счастья. - Вольтер
RFE/RL Daily Report

No. 11, 17 January 1992





SUCCESSOR STATES TO USSR

GAMSAKHURDIA DECLARES CIVIL WAR, MARCHES ON TBILISI. At a rally
in Zugdidi on January 16, ousted Georgian President Zviad Gamsakhurdia
called on supporters to overthrow the ruling Military Council
and set out for Tbilisi with some 4,000-5,000 armed followers.
Military Council co-chairman Tengiz Kitovani said that National
Guard detachments had been sent to the towns of Zugdidi, Poti,
and Samtredia. Pro- and anti-Gamsakhurdia demonstrations were
held in Tbilisi. Acting Prime Minister Tengiz Sigua told Radio
Rossii on January 16 that Armenia had violated the terms of an
agreement between the two republics by allowing Gamsakhurdia
to leave. Abkhaz Supreme Soviet Chairman Vladislav Ardzinba told
TASS on January 16 that he had had no prior knowledge of Gamsakhurdia's
arrival in Sukhumi from Grozny. He also denied claims made by
Gamsakhurdia concerning the creation of a Mingrelian-Abkhaz republic
and asserted that Abkhazia would take no part in such a formation.
(Liz Fuller)

MEETING OF CIS LEADERS IN MOSCOW. A meeting of CIS heads of state
in Moscow on January-16 discussed military and economic issues,
TASS reported that day. The presidents of Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan,
and Moldova were absent for various reasons, but delegations
from those three states participated. Russian President Boris
Yeltsin was chosen to chair the meeting, which had a total of
14 items on the agenda. At the suggestion of Kazakh President
Nursultan Nazarbaev these included departures from the agreements
reached in Minsk and Alma-Ata. Little information is available
so far on what transpired, but seven documents were signed. Yeltsin
said afterwards that the leaders reached accord "calmly and with
mutual understanding" on all the questions up for decision. (Ann
Sheehy)

AGREEMENTS ON ECONOMIC MATTERS. Yeltsin's press spokesman Pavel
Voshchanov said after the meeting that the CIS leaders had agreed
on an upper limit of 50% profitability in order to prevent an
unjustified increase in prices in monopoly conditions. They also
agreed to ask the heads of government to prepare submissions
on free transit and on abolishing quotas on certain types of
output. (Ann Sheehy)

LIMITED PROGRESS ON MILITARY ISSUES. While details were sketchy,
TASS reported on January 16 that two accords on military matters
were signed. One agreement involved a new military oath for servicemen
in the strategic forces. It also apparently provided for a common
military oath to be taken by soldiers in the joint forces of
seven of the CIS member states. A second agreement spelled out
the creation of two commissions tasked with resolving debates
over the future disposition and ownership of the Black Sea Fleet
and Caspian Sea Flotilla. Russia, Ukraine, and representatives
of the high command will be included in the first commission,
while Russia, Azerbaijan, and military representatives will constitute
the second. Discussion on other key military issues was reportedly
put off until February. (Stephen Foye)

ALL-ARMY OFFICERS' ASSEMBLY. Over five thousand officers are
scheduled to meet in Moscow today (January 17) to discuss the
future of the armed forces, TASS reports. The meeting will reportedly
focus on maintaining the unity of the armed forces and, if this
is impossible, that a transition period be established in which
to implement military reform. Interfax reported on January 17
that CIS Commander in Chief Evgenii Shaposhnikov will brief the
officers at the meeting. It said that he had already held talks
with military district commanders. (Stephen Foye)

CHIEF OF STAFF SAYS UKRAINE IN CONTROL OF TACTICAL WEAPONS. The
recently appointed chief of staff of the Ukrainian armed forces,
Major General Georgii Zhivitsa, on January 16 told Western agencies
that Kiev now controls all former Soviet military units on Ukraine's
territory, including their tactical nuclear weapons, although
he reiterated that such weapons will be removed from Ukraine
by July 1. Zhivitsa confirmed earlier reports that Kiev has dismantled
military communication channels to Moscow. Only long-range weapons
remain under joint CIS command, he said. The chief of staff also
insisted that "all ships on the territory of Ukraine belong to
Ukraine . . . I consider the entire Black Sea Fleet part of the
armed forces of Ukraine." He said soldiers are now receiving
their pay from Ukraine. (Kathy Mihalisko)

REPUBLICAN PARTY WANTS UKRAINE OUT OF COMMONWEALTH. Calls from
Moscow in recent days to maintain central control over all armed
forces throughout the former USSR apparently could, if carried
out, prompt Ukraine to leave the Commonwealth. The influential
Ukrainian Republican Party on January 15 drew up a statement
saying that the Russian leadership and military command of the
former USSR had falsely accused Ukraine of breaking the Minsk
agreements with its plans to create a Ukrainian armed forces.
Given the "political provocation" directed against the Ukrainian
state, the statement went on, the Republican Party considers
Ukraine's continued participation in the CIS to be "impossible."
(Kathy Mihalisko)

KRAVCHUK DOUBTS CIS HAS FUTURE. Ukrainian President Leonid Kravchuk
in an interview with the Japanese newspaper Asahi Shimbun has,
in effect, threatened to quit the CIS. The interview was summarized
by TASS on January 16. Kravchuk said that under conditions when
CIS member states are constantly violating CIS agreements and
attempting to extend their powers, Ukraine will raise the question
of reviewing the CIS accords. He was referring to Russia, which
he criticized once again for interfering in Ukrainian affairs.
Kravchuk remarked that as things stand the CIS "cannot exist
for long." (Roman Solchanyk)

UKRAINIAN GOVERNMENT UNDER FIRE. The economic policies of the
Ukrainian government were severely criticized at a meeting of
the Cabinet of Ministers in Kiev yesterday, Radio Kiev reported
on January 16. Specifically, the lifting of price controls, which
has resulted in big price increases and social tensions came
under fire. It was proposed that as much as 70% of the Cabinet
be replaced. (Roman Solchanyk)

"RUKH" CALLS FOR GOVERNMENT TO RESIGN. A statement issued by
"Rukh" yesterday has demanded that the Ukrainian Cabinet of Ministers
resign, Radio Kiev reported on January 16. "Rukh" argued that
the ruble should be immediately withdrawn from circulation and
replaced, in the interim, by coupons until the introduction of
a Ukrainian currency. This would be followed by an administrative
lowering of prices and state control over prices in the state
sector. (Roman Solchanyk)

"TRANSCAUCASUS MILITARY DISTRICT SHOULD REMAIN UNDER RUSSIAN
CONTROL." The Commander of the Transcaucasus Military District,
Colonel-General Valerii Patrikeev, told TASS on January 16 that
he believed the district should remain under Russian jurisdiction.
He claimed that the Armenian leadership and the new Georgian
leadership had agreed that Soviet troops should remain on their
territory, but that Azerbaijan "was the exception." (Azerbaijani
President Ayaz Mutalibov declared himself Commander in Chief
of all armed forces in Azerbaijan last month.) Patrikeev further
expressed concern at the growing number of young officers of
various nationalities who wished to serve on the territory of
their home republic. (Liz Fuller)

CPSU FUNDS ALLOCATED FOR SOCIAL WELFARE. Yeltsin, in an address
to Parliament on the impact of price deregulation, announced
that funds from the treasury of the former Soviet Communist Party
would be transferred to a fund for social welfare, Russian TV
reported on January 16. Yeltsin said that some 4,300 rubles and
$17 million of CPSU funds would be used to help the poorest people
cope with rising prices. (Carla Thorson)

RUSSIAN TRADE UNIONS PROTEST. Russia's Federation of Independent
Trade Unions [former official unions] began picketing outside
the Russian Parliament on January 16 and has called for a day
of protests today against price deregulation, Russian and Western
agencies reported. The chairman of the Federation, Igor Klochkov,
told TASS that the trade unions are not opposed to market reforms.
Rather, the protests are directed against the government for
not instituting any measures to ensure the social welfare of
the population. TASS estimated the crowd outside the parliament
on January 16 to be about 2,000 people. (Carla Thorson)

KRYUCHKOV AND GRUSHKO RELEASED FROM PRISON. Former KGB Chairman
Vladimir Kryuchkov and his First Deputy, Victor Grushko, have
been released from prison, according to Radio Rossii on January
16. Kryuchkov is currently at his dacha and Grushko is at home.
(On January 15, the state commission investigating the August
coup attempt completed its study and formally charged the putsch's
15 leaders, including five KGB generals.) (Victor Yasmann)

DID GORBACHEV RULE THE KGB, OR VICE VERSA? Lawyers for the leaders
of the attempted August coup said at a news conference, covered
by Russian TV newscasts of January 15 and 16, that Russian authorities
should prevent former USSR President Mikhail Gorbachev from travelling
abroad because they want to call him as a defense witness. Yurii
Ivanov, Kryuchkov's lawyer, said that Gorbachev had authorized
his client to bug the telephone calls of Gorbachev's own aides,
such as his then-spokesman Vitalii Ignatenko, and those of many
prominent politicians. Meanwhile, Izvestia published on January
11 a memorandum sent to Kryuchkov from head of the Soviet espionage
department Leonid Shebarshin. The memorandum indicates that many
members of Gorbachev's circle had informed on him to the KGB
and that the KGB had used its agents to influence Gorbachev's
decisions. (Julia Wishnevsky)

CONSTITUTIONAL COURT CHAIRMAN THREATENS TO IMPEACH SHAKHRAI.
During the session of the Russian Supreme Soviet on January-16,
Chairman of the Russian Constitutional-Court Valerii Zorkin,
in an address broadcast on Russian TV later that night, recalled
the Court's ruling that Yeltsin's decree merging the former RSFSR
and USSR ministries of state security and internal affairs was
unconstitutional. Zorkin cited reports in "the official media"-namely,
Rossiiskaya gazeta, Rossiiskie vesti and Radio Liberty-which
quoted Sergei Shakhrai, Russian State Secretary for legal matters,
as dismissing the Court's ruling and saying that it did not mean
that the decree was to be revoked. Zorkin said that the Court
would start "the process of impeachment" against Shakhrai if
these reports were not refuted in the press. In turn, Shakhrai
said that the Court's ruling was to be observed and that the
new heads of the two ministries had already been appointed. (Julia
Wishnevsky)

MVD OFFICERS ACCUSE KGB OF TRYING TO PRESERVE ELITE STATUS. A
group of MVD officers writing in Pravda of January 14 ascribed
the KGB's domestic services' reluctance to merge with the Russian
MVD to its unwillingness to be subordinated to ordinary police
generals and to lose its privileges. In addition, they asserted,
the merger could make trouble for many entrepreneurs who started
their businesses with assistance from the CPSU and the KGB. In
this connection, the officers mentioned General Aleksandr Gurov's
failed attempt to set up an Anti-Corruption Committee with authority
over the KGB's Organized Crime Department. The Russian Constitutional
Court, in ruling against the merger, declared it to be as contrary
to the Constitution's provisions concerning "separation of executive,
legislative and juridical power." The current Russian Constitution,
however, does not contain such a principle; the draft of a new
Constitution, which does contain the principle, has not yet been
approved. (Victor Yasmann)

FRESH SCANDAL IN WRITERS' UNION. About 200 conservative writers,
led by Yurii Bondarev and Aleksandr Prokhanov, on January 15
stormed the Moscow Central House of Writers, "Vesti" reported
later that night. According to "Vesti," the Bondarev-Prokhanov
group held a noisy meeting in the House to protest the transformation
of the USSR Writers' Union into the Commonwealth of Independent
Writers' Unions, shouting abuse at its liberal leaders. "Vesti"
quoted the speakers as calling the CIWU First Secretary, Uzbek
writer Timur Pulatov, "a Basmach sold out to Zionists." Other
liberal writers (mostly Russians) were termed "Yids," "Semites,"
and "betrayers of the Russian idea." Thereupon the protesters
marched to the Leo Tolstoy memorial in the yard facing the House
of Writers, where they burned an effigy of the poet Evgenii Evtushenko.
(Julia Wishnevsky)

ZIONISTS SUPPORT COSSACK CALL FOR ABOLITION OF JEWISH OBLAST.
The co-president of the Zionist organization of the former USSR,
Ganovich, has supported the demand of the Union of Cossack Hosts
of Siberia and the Far East for the abolition of the Jewish Autonomous
Oblast in Birobidzhan, Central TV reported on January 16. Ganovich
described the autonomous oblast as an absurd, artificial formation,
illegally created on the historic lands of the Ussuri Cossacks.
(Ann Sheehy)

GERMAN PARLIAMENT BLOCKS MONEY FOR VOLGA REPUBLIC. On January
16, the budget committee of the German Bundestag blocked some
DM 50 million earmarked for funding a recreated Volga German
republic, Western agencies reported on January 16. The committee
decided that the money would not be available to the German government
until Russia's plans for the Volga republic become clearer. (Ann
Sheehy)

BALTIC STATES



SAVISAAR GRANTED EMERGENCY POWERS. By a vote of 53-for, 37-against
and 4-abstentions the Estonian Supreme Council decided on January-16
to grant Prime Minister Edgar Savisaar emergency economic powers
for up to three months, or until the acceptance of the Estonian
constitution, whichever comes first, Estonian and Western agencies
reported. The decision, which the government also tied to a vote
of confidence, represented a revised version of Savisaar's request
for emergency powers, with a shortened time-span and more importantly,
a provision for a joint Supreme Council-governmental emergency
powers commission, which would have veto rights over government
decrees. The parliament, however, failed to elect the commission
members, because only 41-rather than the required 52-deputies
voted in favor of the proposed slate. (Toomas Ilves and Saulius
Girnius)

MINIMAL TAXABLE INCOME SCALED UPWARD IN LATVIA. The Latvian Supreme
Council on January-14 revised the taxation law. According to
the revision, no tax would have to be paid by an individual earning
under 460-rubles a month (also considered a minimal monthly wage),
580-rubles for invalids of the first category, 540-rubles for
invalids of the second category, and 500-rubles for invalids
of the third category. The revision was necessitated by the precipitous
rise in the cost of living. (Dzintra Bungs)

NEW POLITICAL PARTY IN LATVIA. On January-17 Radio Riga interviewed
Aigars Jirgens and Aleksandrs Petersons, two leaders of the new
political party calling itself the November-18 Society (18-Novembra
Savieniba). Founded on December-22, 1991, the party draws its
support from the Republican Party, and the Citizens Congress
and Committee of Latvia. The party's program was en-dorsed by
42-individuals. The new party, which Jirgens described as "nationally
conservative," intends to restore the Republic of Latvia of
November-18, 1918 and advocates the rights of the Latvian people.
What was not clear from the interview is what bearing the new
party will have on the Republican Party and the citizens' movement.
(Dzintra Bungs)

LANDSBERGIS TO MEET YELTSIN. Chairman of the Lithuanian Supreme
Council Vytautas Landsbergis flies to Moscow January-17 for a
meeting with Russian President Boris Yeltsin, Radio Lithuania
reported. They will discuss Lithuanian-Russian trade relations,
the status of Russians living in Lithuania and Lithuanians living
in the Kaliningrad area, the withdrawal of Soviet armed forces
from Lithuania, border questions, and the Lithuanian request
to-hand over individuals in hiding in Russia against whom arrest
warrants have been issued. (Saulius Girnius)

LITHUANIA APPOINTS DEPUTIES TO EUROPEAN COUNCIL PARLIAMENT. On
January-16 the Lithuanian Supreme Council appointed parliament
depu-ties Algirdas Brazauskas, Eugenijus Gentvilas, Juozas Karvelis,
and Jonas Tamulis as its representatives for one year to the
European Council parliament, Radio Lithuania reported on January-17.
(Saulius Girnius)

GORBUNOVS MEETS ARAB GROUP. On January-17 members of the Arab
Group AB met with Latvian Supreme Council Chairman Anatolijs
Gorbunovs, reported Radio Riga that day. The Arab Group, which
has been visiting Latvia and Estonia this week, is interested
in developing economic ties with the Baltic States. Latvian authorities
are seeking alternate sources of petroleum since Russia has become
an unreliable supplier. (Dzintra Bungs)

US DONATES CORN TO LITHUANIA. US-Secretary of Agriculture Edward
Madigan announced that the US will donate 100,000 metric tons
of corn to Lithuania, Western agencies reported on January-15.
The $11-million donation will be sold by the Lithuanian government
to private sector feed millers and livestock and poultry producers
for feed. The proceeds will go to private voluntary organizations
operating in Lithuania and to developing private sector farms.
(Saulius Girnius)

CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE

SERBIAN REACTION TO EC RECOGNITION. Radio Serbia reported on
January-16 that leaders in Serbia have widely condemned the formal
recognition of the breakaway republics of Croatia and Slovenia
by the EC. The Serbian-controlled rump State Presidency said
it considers the action as "an intentional breakup of Yugoslavia"
adding that it does not solve the country's crisis. However,
several Serb leaders are saying that recognition should not be
seen as a tragedy and are advocating that Belgrade immediately
recognize Slovenia and Croatia, thereby underscoring that Croatian
territory taken over by the federal army and Serb irregulars
will remain in Yugoslavia. (Milan Andrejevich)

RECOGNITION UPDATE. Australia and Czechoslovakia joined the ranks
of states recognizing Croatia and Slovenia on January-16. A Czechoslovak
government statement said it is prepared to establish diplomatic
relations with Slovenia "without delay," but would only do so
with Croatia after receiving guarantees from Zagreb of its compliance
with human and minority rights, CSTK reported. Romania sought
to clarify its nonrecognition in a communique circulated by Rompres
on January-16 stating that given Romania's responsibilities in
the stability and security of the region, it bases its stance
on observance of the right to self-determination of all peoples
in the Yugoslav republics, including their right to set up independent
states or various forms of association. Russia's decision to
hold back on recognition was interpreted by Interfax on January-16
as grounded on the Foreign Ministry's wish to see recognition
not only by individual states but by the entire EC, lingering
questions about human rights guarantees in Croatia, and the "traditionally
friendly" contacts between the former union and Serbia. An hour
after Bulgaria's recognition of the Republic of Macedonia had
been announced, Foreign Minister Stoyan Ganev returned from a
visit to Germany. He told BTA that he supported the move but
that further development should take into consideration the realities
and goals of Bulgaria's foreign policy. Bulgaria should make
it clear that it considers Macedonia's frontiers unchanged, he
said. Diplomatic relations should be established after the EC
or part of it has done so. On January-17 Zemedelsko zname quoted
Ganev as saying that time would show that the decision had been
"correct, principled, and stabilizing." (RFE/RL RI staff)

MILOSEVIC IN ATHENS. Radio Serbia reported on January-16 that
Serbian President Slobodan Milosevic concluded more than two
hours of talks with Greek Prime Minister Constantine Mitsotakis
in Athens. It was their second meeting in three days and their
fourth since last year. Both leaders agreed that Yugoslavia must
survive as a state. Mitsotakis told reporters that Yugoslav republics
have the right to independence but he warned that "no one has
the right to make Yugoslavia disappear." Milosevic praised Greece's
support. Greece has welcomed the EC recognition of Croatia and
Slovenia but is leading the battle to block EC recognition of
the Republic of Macedonia. According to the Turkish daily Gunajdin,
Milosevic will soon make an official visit to Turkey. (Milan
Andrejevich)

SOLIDARITY CHIEF MEETS OLSZEWSKI. Following a wave of warning
strikes and protests against the energy price hikes Solidarity
chief Marian Krzaklewski met on January-16 with Polish Prime
Minister Jan Olszewski to discuss a possible alternative to the
announced rises. Solidarity spokesman Andrzej Adamczyk told PAP
that Krzaklewski proposed to replace the increases with periodic
individual energy assessments proportional to people's income.
It is not clear whether these supplements would be a kind of
general head tax or would apply to working adults only. Government
spokesman Marcin Gugulski mentioned the possibility of further
government-solidarity talks "on long-term socioeconomic problems."
(Roman Stefanowski)

POLAND, GERMANY EXCHANGE RATIFICATION DOCUMENTS. In simultaneous
ceremonies in Warsaw and Bonn, Poland and Germany exchanged ratification
documents on the general and border treaties, PAP and Western
agencies reported on January-16. The treaties confirm the Oder-Neisse
line as Poland's Western border. German Foreign Minister Hans-Dietrich
Genscher said the treaties also opened the perspective of ever
closer relations of Poland with the EC. Polish Foreign Minister
Krzysztof Skubiszewski said he has invited the five prime ministers
of the former GDR for talks on science, culture, technology,
environment, and transport. (Roman Stefanowski)

POLAND CASHES IN ON THE GULF WAR. Returning from a trip to the
Gulf area, Deputy Foreign Minister Jan Majewski told PAP on January-15
that the visit has created a good climate for future relations
with the Gulf states, noting as especially important the imminent
establishment of diplomatic relations with Saudi Arabia. Majewski
said that Poland's acceptance in the area is attributable to
its participation in the multinational force during the emergency
last year, to the fact that Poland's is one of the more stable
presences in Eastern Europe, and to the fact that Poland is not
seeking aid or credits but only opportunities for cooperation.
(Roman Stefanowski)

ISRAEL CRITICIZES CZECHOSLOVAK TANK SHIPMENT TO SYRIA. On January-16
Israel summoned Czechoslovak Ambassador Maloc Pojar to complain
about the resumption of Czechoslovak tank shipments to Syria.
An Israeli Foreign Ministry official told Pojar the shipments
could harm bilateral relations and urged Czechoslovakia to reconsider.
In response to Israel's protest, Czechoslovak Foreign Minister
Jiri Dienstbier told CSTK that no more tanks would be sent to
Syria and that he did not think Czechoslovak-Israeli ties would
suffer because of the protest. The shipment took place under
a 1991 contract calling for Syria to buy some 200-Czechoslovak
tanks and thousands of tractors.(Peter Matuska)

NEW LEGISLATION ON MEDIA IN HUNGARY CALLED FOR. The presidium
of the National Federation of Hungarian Journalists (MUOSZ) has
issued a statement urging the government to prepare legislation
regulating investment in the Hungarian media, MTI reported on
January-16. The presidium said that in the absence of regulations,
one single investor could buy up the entire Hungarian media and
create a monopoly. The enactment of legislation on the media
has for months been delayed because of disagreements between
the governing and opposition parties who accuse each other of
seeking to control the media and differ over limits to foreign
investment. There already is substantial foreign investment in
the Hungarian press, particularly in leading newspapers. (Edith
Oltay)

ROMANIAN MINERS' LEADER AGAIN DEFYING AUTHORITIES. Miron Cosma,
leader of the Miners' League of the Jiu Valley said that the
Autonomous State Board for Coke (ASBC) is profit-making and contributes
to the state budget, not the reverse as the authorities are claiming.
He rejected a suggestion from Industry Minister Dan Constantinescu
to transform the ASBC into a commercial enterprise within two
months. The parliamentary commission investigating the fourth
miners' rampage in Bucharest in September 1991 protested Cosma's
"lack of respect for constitutional norms" in refusing to cooperate
with the commission's work. The commission said it will take
appropriate measures to ensure that its mandate will be carried
out. (Mihai Sturdza)

CRITICISM OF ROMANIA'S PRIVATIZATION POLICIES. Eugen Dijmarescu,
Minister for Economy and Finance in the former Roman government,
resigned his current post as adviser to the prime minister on
January-16. He said the government's economic policies have completely
ignored social aspects and the competitiveness of Romania's economy.
Other criticism came from the National Agency for Privatization
(NAP), which suggested two months ago the creation of a fund
to guarantee some 70% of the grants given to commercial enterprises
be earmarked for new small and medium-sized private companies.
Arpres quoted NAP representative Lucion Blaga as saying that
the move is being obstructed at the government level. (Mihai
Sturdza)

BULGARIAN ELECTIONS GO TO SECOND ROUND. President Zhelyu Zhelev
and his opponent Velko Valkanov are preparing for the second
round of presidential elections on January-19. They are to hold
a debate on Bulgarian TV on January-17.-Mean-while, on January-15
the eleven parties not represented in parliament who had backed
Zhelev again expressed support for him, as did the two organizations
of the Confederation of Labor Podkrepa, which had meanwhile split.
On January-15 Valkanov met with the candidates who lost in the
first round and told BTA that all but one had said they would
support him. George Ganchev, the candidate who placed third,
said immediately after the first round that he would make no
recommendations to his supporters, and by January-16 he had apparently
not changed this position. Bulgarian dailies generally predict
a victory for Zhelev. (Rada Nikolaev) [As of 1200 CET] Compiled
by Sallie Wise Chaballier & Charles Trumbull






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