Манеры выказывают нравы подобно тому, как платье обнаруживает талию. - Ф. Бэкон
RFE/RL Daily Report

No. 227, 02 December 1991



USSR-All-Union And Inter-Republican Topics



RUSSIA ASSUMES RESPONSIBILITY FOR UNION BUDGET. After meeting
with USSR President Mikhail Gorbachev and USSR Gosbank Chairman
Viktor Gerashchenko on November 30, RSFSR President Boris Yeltsin
announced that Russia would assume responsibility for the union
budget through the end of the year, CTV and Western agencies
reported that day. Yeltsin said that central government expenditure
would be substantially reduced, but that salaries would not be
cut in military, scientific, cultural, and budget organizations.
The move breaks the deadlock over funding the union budget for
the last quarter of 1991 that arose when RSFSR deputies refused
to approve additional credits of around 90 billion rubles. (Keith
Bush)

DEFENSE MINISTERS' COUNCIL CREATED. The USSR State Council has
created a consultative body called the Defense Ministers' Council
tasked with conducting a unified military policy and making decisions
on defense matters, General Staff Chief Vladimir Lobov told Radio
Moscow on November 29. Membership will include defense representatives
from the republics. (Stephen Foye)

COLLECTIVE SECURITY TREATY DRAFTED. The USSR Supreme Soviet has
drawn up a draft treaty that would create a single security area
for member states, the establishment of a unified strategic force,
and the creation of nuclear-free republican armies. As reported
by Radio Moscow on November 30, the draft also calls for elimination
of tactical nuclear weapons and joint, proportional financing
of the united forces by member states. (Stephen Foye)

LOBOV STILL WANTS UNIFIED ARMY. In separate remarks reported
by TASS on November 29 and broadcast by Soviet television on December
1, General Staff Chief Vladimir Lobov reiterated his call for
unified armed forces that would permit the republics considerable
input in military decision-making and administration, but would
continue to subordinate strategic forces and general military
forces to the center. He again urged that republican-controlled
armed units be limited to National Guard forces. (Stephen Foye)


MANILOV ON MILITARY BUDGET. Defense Ministry spokesman Valerii
Manilov, speaking to Soviet television on November 29 following
a meeting of republican defense representatives, said that tentative
agreement had been reached to lower military spending for 1992
by roughly3%. He said that spending for weapons procurement would
be cut by approximately30%, and that these savings would be devoted
to improving social conditions for soldiers. The 3% figure seems
unrealistically low, and it is unclear whether inter-republican
consultations will be viable.(Stephen Foye)

GENERAL WARNS OF CHAOS. Major General Leonid Kozhendaev, identified
as chief of a section of the General Staff, warned in Komsomol'skaya
pravda on November 30 that the Soviet state has been destroyed
and that the country is now on the edge of civil war and anarchy.
As reported by TASS, Kozhendaev's ominous remarks reflected the
views of his underlings on the General Staff. He called for immediate
action, said that the army is capable of helping politicians,
but also warned that the army is becoming politicized and is
"tired of being humiliated." (Stephen Foye)

SOVIET CARRIER LEAVES THE BLACK SEA. The Soviet Navy has told
Turkish authorities that the aircraft carrier Admiral Kuznetsov
will transit the Turkish Straits on Monday, December2. While
the 1936 Montreux Convention technically prohibits such ships
in the straits, the Turks have accepted the Soviet contention
that the Kuznetsov is an "aircraft-carrying cruiser," according
to Reuters. The fate of the Kuznetsov's sister ship--still being
fitted out--and a larger follow-on ship under construction remains
uncertain. The Ukrainian government is reported to have taken
over the shipyards on the Black Sea where these vessels are located
and might not complete them for the Soviet Navy. (Doug Clarke)


NEW FIRST DEPUTY. Aleksandr Vladislavlev was appointed First
Deputy Minister of External Relations, External Relations Ministry
Spokesman Vitalii Churkin said on November29. Churkin said one
of Vladislavlev's priorities will be to eliminate "any obstacles
to the development of market relations" and "to create the maximum
incentives for foreign investment." (Suzanne Crow)


REPUBLICS


EARLY REFERENDUM RESULTS IN UKRAINE. Initial results of yesterday's
referendum confirm predictions of overwhelming support for Ukrainian
independence, Western news agencies reported. Results from several
electoral districts showed a probable result of 75% supporting
the August 24 declaration of independence. In Kiev, nearly 93%
voted yes. The heavily Russified and industrial Donetsk Oblast
showed a 70% majority. In Odessa and the Crimea, the figures
were 75% and 54% in favor, respectively. Lvov, in Western Ukraine,
voted 80% for independence. (Roman Solchanyk)

KRAVCHUK RUNNING AHEAD IN UKRAINIAN PRESIDENTIAL RACE. Chairman
of the Ukrainian Supreme Soviet Leonid Kravchuk appears to be
headed for victory as Ukraine's first popularly elected president,
Western agencies reported. Ukrainian election officials reported
that trends indicated that the Ukrainian leader would win on
the first ballot with more than 50% of the vote. Results from
Donetsk and Lvov gave Kravchuk 60% of the vote. (Roman Solchanyk)


US TO ACKNOWLEDGE UKRAINIAN INDEPENDENCE. US ambassador in Moscow
Robert Strauss told an American television news program on Sunday
that the US will "acknowledge" Ukraine's independence vote and
"do something about it," Western news agencies reported. At the
same time, Strauss said that there will be no rush to extend
formal recognition. The US ambassador told American television
viewers that before recognition is extended a number of issues
would have to be examined, including how the referendum was conducted,
Ukraine's commitment to human rights, the question of nuclear
arms in Ukraine, and the Soviet debt. (Roman Solchanyk)

YELTSIN ON UKRAINIAN INDEPENDENCE. Russian President Boris Yeltsin
told the main television news program on Saturday evening that
hecould not imagine a Union without Ukraine. "What, after all,
is the Union without Ukraine?" asked Yeltsin. The Russian leader
also asserted that if Ukraine fails to sign a political treaty--i.e.,
a Union treaty, Russia will not sign either. (Roman Solchanyk)


GORBACHEV ON UKRAINIAN INDEPENDENCE. Soviet President Mikhail
Gorbachev is reported as saying that even if Ukraine votes for
independence this does not mean that it will secede from the
Soviet Union, Western news agencies reported. The remark was
made on Saturday during a telephone conversation with US President
Bush. And, in an interview reported by TASS on Saturday, Gorbachev
urged Ukraine to remain in the Union, implying that territorial
claims would be raised if Ukraine secedes. Gorbachev's remarks
elicited a strong response from Ukrainian leader Leonid Kravchuk,
who said that such statements were "ill considered" and constituted
interference in Ukraine's referendum. (Roman Solchanyk)

MOROZOV ON BLACK SEA FLEET. Ukrainian Defense Minister Konstantin
Morozov said at anews conference on November 30 that Ukraine's
plan to establish its own armed forces would include a navy drawn
partly from the Black Sea Fleet, AFP reported that day. He also
disclosed that defense officials from 11 of the 12 former Soviet
republics had metin Moscow on November 28 and 29 and had agreed
on the right of the republics to set up their own armed forces
independent of the union army. Morozov acknowledged that talks
with Moscow are crucial. He predicted that Ukraine's draft laws
on defense would be approved by the Supreme Soviet shortly after
the vote on independence. (Kathy Mihalisko)

NAZARBAEV ELECTED. Soviet and Western agencies reported on December
1 that Kazakhstan's President Nursultan Nazarbaev had been confirmed
in office in the first direct presidential election to be held
in the republic. Nazarbaev was elected republican president by
Kazakhstan's Supreme Soviet in 1990. Preliminary reports indicated
that Nazarbaev had received around 90% of the vote in the December1
election, in which he was the only candidate registered. Some
87% of the electorate reportedly voted. Nazarbaev told journalists
that heconsidered the election a popular referendum on his plans
to introduce radical market reforms. (Bess Brown)

RUTSKOI PROTESTS PLANNED PRICE LIBERALIZATION. RSFSR Vice President
Aleksandr Rutskoi has threatened to resign if Russia frees prices
"immediately," according to RIA of November30. Rutskoi, who was
on a tour of Siberian cities, was quoted by TASS of the same
date as saying that the forthcoming liberalization of retail
prices would inevitably lead to the "impoverishment" of the majority
of the population and to "unpredictable social consequences."
He argued that prices could not be freed before October 1992,
after foreign trade liberalization, and after land and financial
reforms. The date for freeing most wholesale and retail prices
in the RSFSR has not yet been announced, but it is widely believed
to be scheduled for January 1992. (Keith Bush)

FREEZE ON SAVINGS DEPOSITS DENIED. On November 30, Radio Rossii
announced that Russian banks would cease all payments in cash,
except for salaries, effective December 2, and that salaries
would be frozen. Bonuses and the 13th month wage packet would
also be frozen. This move was said to stem from an RSFSR government
resolution to curb the money supply. RSFSR Deputy Prime Minister
Egor Gaidar went on Russian TV later that evening to deny the
report (which was also carried by RIA) and assured viewers that
"the Russian Government guarantees that bank accounts will not
be frozen." (Keith Bush)

RSFSR LAW ON MASS MEDIA ADOPTED IN FIRST READING. On November
27, the RSFSR Supreme Soviet adopted in the first reading the
republican law on mass media, "Radio Rossii" reported on November
28. The newly created Russian Association of Independent Broadcasting
held a press conference on November 28 to criticize the draft
law. Journalists especially protested the provision of the draft
law stating that during a state of emergency "the organs of emergency
power should be given unlimited access to radio and television
to announce their documents." (Vera Tolz)

DEMOCRATIC PARTY OF RUSSIA PLANS THIRD CONGRESS. Interviewed
on Soviet Television on November 29, Nikolai Travkin said the
DPR, which he heads, will hold its Third Congress in Moscow on
December 7 and 8. Travkin said the party has recently set up
its own Party School and youth organization. (Elizabeth Teague)

ULTRANATIONALISTS RALLY IN MOSCOW, ST.PETERSBURG. A few dozens
of Russian "anti-Zionists" were shown on December 1 by "TV Inform,"
protesting against celebrations in Kremlin of the Jewish religious
feast, Hanukkah. Meanwhile, according to AP of December 1, 3,000
citizens of St. Petersburg rallied in support of the local TV
reporter Aleksandr Nevzorov, whose popular program "600 Seconds"
had been closed down by the new head of the St. Petersburg radio
and television Viktor Yugin, because of Nevzorov's alleged support
to the coup organizers. The participants shouted abuses against
Yeltsin and Gorbachev, and several journalists, trying to cover
the event, were beaten up. (Julia Wishnevsky)

LOW TURNOUT REPORTED IN INGUSH REFERENDUM. Only just over 5%
of the electorate voted in a referendum on the future of Ingushetia
on November 30 called by the third all-national congress of Ingush,
RIA reported on December 1. Voters were asked to say whether they
wanted to form an Ingush republic in the RSFSR with the return
of lands illegally taken from them by Stalin and with its capital
in the right bank of the North Ossetian capital, Vladikavkaz,
TASS reported November 30. The organizers of the referendum maintained
that Yeltsin had promised this land would be returned to them
if they voted to remain in the RSFSR. The referendum was opposed
by the "Justice" party and part of the Muslim clergy, and also
by Chechen President, Dzhakhar Dudaev. (Ann Sheehy)

GEORGIA DECLARES STATE OF EMERGENCY IN MARNEULI. Georgian President
Zviad Gamsakhurdia imposed a state of emergency in Marneuli raion
south of Tbilisi, which has a predominantly Azerbaijani population,
because of "an escalation of inter-ethnic conflicts," Georgian
television reported on November 29. (Liz Fuller)

GEORGIAN PARLIAMENT SESSION SUSPENDED. Radio Mayak reported on
November 30 that a session of the Georgian Supreme Soviet that
began on November 29 had broken up amid scuffles between supporters
of President Zviad Gamsakhurdia and the parliamentary opposition.
The parliament chairman, Akaki Asatiani, reportedly asked to
be relieved from his post because of a severe illness; his deputy
refused to chair the session, which is scheduled to resume on
December 3. (Liz Fuller)



BALTIC STATES


USSR DELEGATION CHIEFS FOR BALTIC TALKS CHANGED. Janis Peters,
head of the Latvian representation in Moscow, told Diena on November 29
that Soviet delegation heads for talks with the Baltic States
(Anatolii Sobchak for talks with Estonia, Aleksandr Yakovlev
for Latvia, Eduard Shevardnadze for Lithuania) had been changed
and that the talks would henceforth fall under the jurisdiction
of the USSR Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Peters was told of the
changes by the USSR First Deputy Minister of Communications Aleksandr
Kovalov, who indicated that Moscow was giving greater importance
to the USSR-Baltic talks than before. Peters did not learn the
names of the new USSR delegation chiefs. (Dzintra Bungs)

TWO MINISTERS TO LEAVE ESTONIAN GOVERNMENT. The Estonian government
voted on November 28 to submit the resignations of two ministers
to the Supreme Council for approval, BNS reported that day. Both
are ministers without portfolio--Endel Lippmaa is responsible
for relations with the East and Artur Kuznetsov is in charge
of nationality affairs. Both men submitted their resignations
to Prime Minister Savisaar long ago, but the government refused
to pass their appeals on to the Supreme Council, which must approve
the resignations. (Riina Kionka)

POLITICAL PARTIES RESPOND ON CITIZENSHIP. Several of Estonia's
major political parties have already responded to the government's
appeal last week for suggestions as to how the 1938 citizenship
law should be applied. The statements,published in Rahva haal
on November 30, suggest that consensus will be hard to reach.
The parties differ widely on four points: whether permanent residents
should be granted citizenship, the length of the minimum residence
requirement, how to apply the language competence requirement,
and whether to allow dual citizenship. Given the lack of unified
opinion, it seems likely that the government will wait for more
parties to respond before acting. (Riina Kionka)

LATVIAN-UKRAINIAN ECONOMIC ACCORD. Diena reported on November
29 that the principles of Latvian-Ukrainian economic cooperation
for 1992 had been ratified by Latvia's Minister of Foreign Trade
Edgars Zausajevs and Ukraine's Minister of State Vladimir Lanahov.
Specific details would be coordinated by December 20. Latvia
has already signed intergovernmental accords with two former
USSR republics, and protocols on economic cooperation for 1992
with nine republics. Currently Latvian representatives are working
on economic agreements with Russia, Kazakhstan, and Uzbekistan.
(Dzintra Bungs)

LATVIAN LABOR PARTY ELECTS NEW LEADER. At its third congress
in Limbazi on November 30 and December 1, the Democratic Labor
Party of Latvia elected Deputy Juris Bojars as its leader; Bojars
replaces Imants Kezbers, once the ideological secretary of the
Latvian Communist Party. Most of the DLPL members are former
liberal communists who split from the LCP in 1990 to form their
own party. The congress discussed an economic program for Latvia
and the party's strategy for the next elections to the Latvian
parliament, Radio Riga reported on December 1. (Dzintra Bungs)

LITHUANIAN-EC DIPLOMATIC TIES. In an interview with RFE/RL on
November 30, Adolfas Venckus, Lithuania's ambassador to NATO,
said he had received a message on November 29 that the European
Community was extending diplomatic relations to Lithuania and
formally recognized him as Lithuania's ambassador to the EC.
(Saulius Girnius)


[English] [Russian TRANS | KOI8 | ALT | WIN | MAC | ISO5]

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Updated: 1998-11-

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