As courage endagers life even so fear preserves it. - Leonardo Da Vinci
RFE/RL Daily Report

No. 214, 11 November 1991



USSR--ALL-UNION TOPICS AND RSFSR



YELTSIN DECLARES STATE OF EMERGENCY IN CHECHENO-INGUSHETIA. On
November 8, RSFSR President Boris Yeltsin issued a decree declaring
a state of emergency in Checheno-Ingushetia for one month, beginning
at 0500 hours on November 9, Soviet media reported November 8.
Yeltsin called for a curfew, the banning of public rallies and
strikes, and the handing in of all weapons. He also named an
interim administration to be headed by Akhmed Arsanov, earlier
appointed his representative in Checheno-Ingushetia. The decree
said that a state of emergency was being introduced in connection
with the acute deterioration of the situation in the republic.
(Ann Sheehy)

DUDAEV DEFIANT. Rebel ex-general Dzhakhar Dudaev, president of
the self-styled Chechen republic, predictably rejected Yeltsin's
declaration, Soviet and Western media reported November 9. He
annulled the curfew and declared martial law "to defend the freedom
of the people." He also called on Arsanov to resign by midday.
TASS and Western agencies reported that thousands of demonstrators
had poured into the streets and turned the city into an "armed
fortress." Members of Dudaev's national guard took control of
several hundred interior ministry troops who had landed at a
military base; on November 10 they were bussed out to North Ossetia.
Airfield runways and roads were blocked, and rail traffic was
stopped for twenty-four hours. RSFSR Vice-President Aleksandr
Rutskoi said that on no account was force to be used, and there
was no sign of any attempt to implement the state of emergency.
(Ann Sheehy)

RSFSR SUPSOV DEBATES CHECHENO-INGUSHETIA. Yeltsin's decree declaring
a state of emergency faced major opposition in the RSFSR Supreme
Soviet on November 10, Radio Rossii and Western agencies reported.
RSFSR KGB chairman Viktor Ivanenko called the decree a "dramatic
error," while Chechen deputy Aslanbek Aslakhanov--currently chairing
the Committee for Legality and Law Enforcement--criticized Yeltsin
for issuing the decree without consulting parliament. Ivanenko
had taken sharp issue with Rutskoi in an earlier debate on October
10 over the advisability of using force. Rutskoi defended the
decree, saying the state of emergency would not be lifted until
all weapons were laid down. The debate continues November 11.
(Ann Sheehy, Victor Yasmann)

DIFFERENT POSITIONS ON YELTSIN'S DECREE ON CHECHENO-INGUSHETIA.
At its 2nd Congress, the Democratic Russia Movement appealed
to Yeltsin to suspend his decree introducing a state of emergency
in Checheno-Ingushetia, TASS reported November 10. In contrast,
the three parties that announced their break with the movement
expressed strong support for Yeltsin's move and said they were
in favor of the RSFSR president's actions "aimed at providing
law and order in the country." (Vera Tolz)

SPLIT IN DEMOCRATIC RUSSIA MOVEMENT. The three parties that made
up the Democratic Russia Movement--the Democratic Party of Russia,
the Party of People's Freedom, and the Christian Democratic Movement--announced
their break with the umbrella organization at the movement's
Second Congress on November 10. TASS said the three parties disagree,
among other things, over the willingness of the Democratic Russia
Movement's leadership to support the right of the RSFSR's autonomous
republics to declare complete independence. The three parties,
in contrast, think that Russia should be "united and indivisible,"
TASS reported. The three break-away parties announced their intention
to set up their own "Coalition of Democratic Forces of Russia."
(Vera Tolz)

PRAVDA TO CONTINUE CAMPAIGN AGAINST GORBACHEV? The November 9
issue of Pravda contained a letter by Vadim Bakatin, accusing
the newspaper of having launched a smear campaign against President
Gorbachev and the USSR State Council. Bakatin referred to a front-page
article that appeared in Pravda on November 6. It said that a
senior employee of the office of USSR General Prosecutor--Viktor
Ilyukhin--had brought a charge of "High Treason" against Gorbachev
based on the State Council's recognition of the independence
of the Baltic States. Bakatin viewed this publication as a "manifestation
of the extreme displeasure of the reactionary forces...which
lost the coup." In reply, Pravda's editors wrote that they were
going to publish Ilyukhin's explanations of his action, as well
as a comment of legal experts on whether or not Ilyukhin's charge
corresponds with provisions of Soviet law. (Julia Wishnevsky)


SOVIET REACTION TO NATO SUMMIT. Soviet Foreign Minister Boris
Pankin said the NATO countries "took a step in the right direction"
by calling for cooperation with former Warsaw Pact nations, Western
agencies reported November 9. His RSFSR counterpart, Andrei Kozyrev,
expressed the view that NATO is "turning more and more into a
potential and real partner" for the Soviet Union. Kozyrev said
it would be desirable for both the USSR and the sovereign republics
to receive an "invitation to cooperate" from NATO, TASS reported
November 9. (Suzanne Crow)

RSFSR STATE COUNCIL DISSOLVED. The RSFSR State Council has been
dissolved following the transfer of RSFSR State Secretary Gennadii
Burbulis to the RSFSR government. An official of the RSFSR State
Council told the RFE/RL Research Institute on November 11 that
the institution of State Counsellors will remain in place. RSFSR
President Boris Yeltsin has named six State Counsellors so far,
including Sergei Shakhrai (legal affairs), Konstantin Kobets
(defense), Sergei Stankevich (ties with social and political
organization), Yurii Skokov (local affairs), Aleksei Yablokov
(ecology) and Aleksandr Granberg (economy). (Alexander Rahr)


RSFSR STATE COUNSELLOR SAYS RUSSIA WILL REPAY SOVIET DEBTS. Aleksandr
Granberg, RSFSR State Counsellor for Questions of Economic Association
and Interrepublican Relations, told TASS on November 9 during
his visit to the Netherlands that Russia is prepared to take
responsibility for all Soviet debts if it is granted priorities
in cooperation and credits from the West. Granberg said that
Russia has always been more open to Western business activities
than the former center. He stressed the consolidating role played
by Russia in forming a new union of sovereign states. (Alexander
Rahr)

SOBCHAK FAVOURS POLITICAL UNION. St Petersburg mayor Anatolii
Sobchak told the Portugese weekly Espress on November 10 that
an economic union of former Soviet republics is not enough and
that the emergence of small totalitarian states on the former
territory of the Soviet Union can only be prevented by the formation
of a political union. Sobchak pointed out that the republics
face the danger of national-socialism and national-fascism. In
a political union, the role of the republics will be stronger
than that of the center, he said. Sobchak emphasized that a political
union is necessary to fulfill the tasks of the former Soviet
Union in the international sphere. (Alexander Rahr)

SOBCHAK CRITICIZES YELTSIN PLAN. St. Petersburg Mayor Anatolii
Sobchak criticized the Yeltsin plan to free prices, Radio Mayak
reported November 8. Sobchak said that prices should not be freed
without real land reform and a program to supply food. He suggested
that if prices for basic goods are not fixed, this could lead
to a "social explosion." The mayor also said that the state must
prevent severe hardship and guarantee a social safety net. (Carla
Thorson)

FALIN DENIES REPORTS ON CPSU FINANCIAL OPERATIONS. Former CPSU
CC secretary for international affairs, Valentin Falin, has denied
allegations that the CPSU CC International Department was controlling
the CPSU's financial aid to Communist Parties abroad. Falin told
TASS on November 10 that when he was in charge of the department,
"not a single kopek" was given to foreign CPs. At the recent
hearings on the CPSU activities in the Russian Parliament, republican
officials quoted from documents kept in the CPSU CC archives,
proving that the CPSU CC's international department was conducting
illegal financial operations. (Vera Tolz)

SHAKHRAI DEFENDS BAN ON COMMUNIST PARTY. Interviewed by Russian
Television's "Vesti" on November 8, RSFSR State Secretary Sergei
Shakhrai defended last week's edict in which Boris Yeltsin disbanded
the CPSU and the Russian Communist Party (RCP). Answering charges
that, under USSR law, a political party can be disbanded only
by decision of its own members or, if it can be shown to have
engaged in criminal activity, by the courts, Shakhrai argued,
not very convincingly, that neither the CPSU nor the RCP was
"a party in the civilized sense of the word" and that both had
used illegal methods. (Elizabeth Teague)

ST PETERSBURG WORKERS CALL FOR CLASS WAR. According to Radio
Moscow (November 9), industrial, transport and communications
workers met recently in St Petersburg and called on all workers
to unite to defend their interests during the period of economic
reforms. (Elizabeth Teague)

YAVLINSKY (AGAIN) ON GOLD. In an interview scheduled to appear
on CTV November 9, Grigorii Yavlinsky returned to the subject
of the USSR's gold production, reserves, and sales. He stated
that Soviet state coffers now contain only 193 tons, and that
the level is not expected to exceed 240 tons by the end of the
year. He stressed that the 193-ton-figure was virtually the entire
gold stock of the country, and that there were no secret hoards
held by the Party, the army, or the KGB. Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan
had a few tons that they had refused to transfer to the state
coffers. (Keith Bush)

RSFSR TV TO COMPETE WITH "VZGLYAD"? A less interesting version
of "Vzglyad," once the most popular Soviet TV show, has reappeared
after a nine-month absence. Now, RSFSR TV has launched a new
one-hour show run by one of former "Vzglyad's" moderators, Artem
Borovik, called Sovershenno sekretno (Top Secret). It first aired
on November 9 and contained: an interview with Aleksandr Yakovlev;
a segment from the institute that stores the brains of Lenin,
Stalin and other prominent Soviet personalities; an interview
with a former employee of the "Alfa" KGB regiment (recalling
atrocities committed by the unit in Afghanistan); and an interview
with a representative of the military-industrial complex speculating
on its role in the coup. (Julia Wishnevsky)

NORWEGIAN EXPORT GUARANTEES. The Norwegian government on November
8 proposed $277 million in state export guarantees for Norwegian
companies that sell on credit to the USSR, Western agencies reported
that day. The guarantees would be offered through the country's
State Guarantee Institute for Export Credit, and will have to
be approved by parliament. (Keith Bush)

PART OF EC LOAN FOR TRIANGULAR TRADE. An unnamed European Community
official told Western agencies November 8 that the USSR can spend
one quarter of its 500-million-ECU EC loan on buying foodstuffs
from East European countries. The loan was offered in December
1990, but has yet to be used. The committee in charge of organizing
the loan had not yet decided what Moscow would be allowed to
buy, according to the official. Paris traders are quoted as saying
that the money will be used for purchases of grain, meat, vegetable
oil and milk powder from East European countries and from the
Baltic states. (Keith Bush)

SOVIET-SOUTH AFRICAN CONSULAR TIES. Visiting South African Foreign
Minister Pik Botha and USSR Foreign Minister Boris Pankin signed
accords November 9 establishing consular ties, TASS reported
that day. Pankin dampened euphoria, saying: "a long road" lies
ahead before full diplomatic ties can be re-established. Moscow
broke relations in 1956 over Pretoria's racial policies. (Suzanne
Crow)

AFGHAN RESISTANCE TEAM IN MOSCOW. A delegation of the main Afghan
resistance groups arrived in Moscow November 10, TASS reported
that day. Meetings are scheduled with both the Soviet and RSFSR
foreign ministers, Boris Yeltsin, and possibly RSFSR Vice President
Aleksandr Rutskoi, himself a veteran of the Afghan war, Western
agencies reported. Talks are expected to focus on the return
of Soviet POWs in Afghanistan. The question of continuing Soviet
arms supplies to the Afghan government is also likely to be discussed.
(See Daily Report, November 4, 1991.) (Suzanne Crow)

MILITARY CHIEFS BEGIN, END VISITS. Soviet Defense Minister Evgenii
Shaposhnikov arrived in Bonn on November 11, where he will meet
with leading German political and military leaders. Among the
topics scheduled for discussion are the Soviet troop withdrawal
from Germany, continuing detente in Europe, and the creation
of European security structures. November 10 TASS reported that
this is Shaposhnikov's first trip abroad. Meanwhile, the Commander-in-Chief
of Soviet Naval Forces, Admiral Vladimir Chernavin, returned
on November 10 from a visit to the United States, where he met
with top-ranking U.S. military chiefs. (Stephen Foye)


USSR--OTHER REPUBLICS


GAMSAKHURDIA DISAPPROVES, COSSACKS APPROVE STATE OF EMERGENCY.
Georgian president Zviad Gamsakhurdia, who supports Dudaev, has
sent an appeal to Yeltsin asking him to revoke the state of emergency
in Checheno-Ingushetia and to respect the Chechen people's will
for self-determination and freedom, Radio Rossii reported November
10. Delegates to the Second Congress of the Union of the Cossacks
of Russia in Stavropol', on the other hand, expressed full support
for Yeltsin's actions vis--vis Checheno-Ingushetia, TASS reported
November 10. Cossacks in Checheno-Ingushetia have been asking
for some form of autonomy or to have their areas of settlement
transferred to Stavropol' krai (Ann Sheehy)

ARMENIA DECLARES ENERGY EMERGENCY. On November 9, Armenia declared
a state of emergency in its energy sector, TASS announced. The
decision by the Armenian Council of Ministers provides for suspending
operation at all Armenian enterprises except for plants responsible
for priority supplies to other republics and meeting domestic
orders. The measure includes strict regulations on the use of
electricity. Armenia is now producing only 40% of its electricity
requirements, according to the head of its fuel and energy resources
department. (Kathy Mihalisko)

KRAVCHUK ON ECONOMIC UNION. Chairman of the Ukrainian Supreme
Soviet Leonid Kravchuk told a press conference on November 8
that the fact that Ukraine validated the economic union treaty
does not mean that "Ukraine is directly tied to implementing
its statutes," Radio Kiev reported. According to the Ukrainian
leader, lengthy negotiations will likely be needed to resolve
25 demands presented by Ukraine. The agreement itself, he said,
can only be implemented after its ratification by the Ukrainian
Supreme Soviet and the parliaments of all the other signatory
states. (Roman Solchanyk)

KRAVCHUK ON UKRAINIAN INDEPENDENCE. Kravchuk also expressed his
conviction that the people of Ukraine will support Ukrainian
independence in the December 1 referendum, Soviet Central television
reported November 8. Kravchuk said that he very much wanted 85%
of the population to vote yes in the referendum. He also asserted
that Ukraine will never sign a treaty that even hints at any
kind of administrative central organ. As for the economic agreement,
he maintained that it was not "a political noose on the neck
of independent Ukraine." In any case, argued Kravchuk, bilateral
treaties will be more important that the economic union. (Roman
Solchanyk)

UKRAINIAN UNITY. Chairman of the Ukrainian parliamentary Commission
on Questions of Defense and State Security Vasyl' Durdynets'
told Rude Pravo that Ukrainian territory is indivisible, Radio
Kiev and TASS reported November 8. Durdynets' rejected the statements
of "certain right-wing forces" in the CSFR regarding the need
to reexamine its eastern borders. Zakarpattya, he asserted, is
an inseparable part of Ukraine. Any attempts to proclaim the
sovereignty of this territory or annex it to another country
constitute a gross intrusion into the internal affairs of Ukraine.
(Roman Solchanyk)

HUNGARIAN AUTONOMY IN ZAKARPATTYA. The December 1 referendum
in Ukraine will be accompanied by a local survey in the Berehovo
Raion of Zakarpattya regarding the formation of a Hungarian Autonomous
District, Radio Kiev reported November 8. The idea is supported
by other Hungarian communities in Zakarpattya. (Roman Solchanyk)


KAZAKHSTAN WILL BE FORCED TO RAISE PRICES. Kazakh president Nursultan
Nazarbaev said November 8 that, when the RSFSR raised its prices,
Kazakhstan would be forced to follow suit, Moscow radio reported
November 8. Otherwise, Nazarbaev said, Yeltsin's action would
allow "sharp operators" from other parts of the Soviet Union
to buy up all Kazakhstan's food and industrial goods for resale
at a profit. (Ann Sheehy)

MOLDAVIA SEEKS U.S. RECOGNITION. Moldavian foreign minister Nicolai
Tsiu called on the United States November 8 to recognize Moldavia's
independence, Western agencies reported November 9. Tsiu, who
was on a three-day visit to Washington, said that, as there was
no Soviet Union any more, the West must deal directly with the
republics. (Ann Sheehy)

SNEGUR SOLE CANDIDATE FOR MOLDAVIAN PRESIDENCY. Moldavian president
Mircea Snegur will be the sole candidate in the forthcoming popular
elections of the Moldavian president, TASS reported November
8. The other two candidates, former Moldavian CP first secretary,
Grigorii Eremei, and the leader of the Greens, writer George
Malarchuk, have withdrawn from the race in view of Snegur's clear
lead. (Ann Sheehy)

SNEGUR ASKS FOR PROTECTION FROM EXTREMIST ATTACKS. Snegur has
asked the Presidium of the Moldavian parliament for protection
from attacks by the extremist wing of the Popular Front because
of his rejection of the idea of union with Romania, Radio Mayak
reported October 8. According to Radio Moscow of October 8, the
Moldavian procurator asked parliament to sanction the arrest
of a deputy who led a group of demonstrators shouting "Snegur
is a traitor" outside Snegur's house, but the presidium confined
itself to condemning the unsanctioned demonstration. (Ann Sheehy)


MOLDAVIAN PREMIER DENIES RSFSR PRESSURE. Moldavian premier Valerii
Muravsky has denied rumors that Moldavia signed the treaty on
an economic community because Yeltsin put pressure on the republic
by halting deliveries of oil products, TSN reported November
8. Muravsky said Moldavia's signature was dictated by the reality
that the West was not welcoming Moldavia with open arms. (Ann
Sheehy)

CRITICAL FUEL SITUATION IN MOLDAVIA. The Director of Moldavia's
Power and Electrification Production Association Valerii Ikonnikov
said November 9 that because of a shortage of various fuels electricity
consumption would have to be drastically reduced, TASS reported
November 9. Kishinev and other large cities would be divided
into zones, which would receive electricity in turns. Hospitals,
schools, and enterprises with a continuous production cycle would
not be affected, but electricity for street lighting and advertising
would be cut, and shops trading in manufactured goods would operate
only in daylight hours. Ikonnikov said he was asking the government
to cut TV broadcasts. (Ann Sheehy)


BALTIC STATES


RETAIL PRICE HIKES IN LITHUANIA. The retail prices for many food
items were scheduled to rise on November 11, Baltfax announced
November 10. There will be a 50% increase in the price of meat,
and 25% rise in the price of dairy products. The prices of fish
products, candies, beer, soft drinks, vegetables, and fruit will
also go up. Price controls on some other goods will be lifted
on November 15. Lithuanian Prime Minister Gediminas Vagnorius
announced the price changes last week, and said that ration coupons
will be issued to help people buy a minimum amount of the affected
goods at fixed prices. The decision to raise prices in Lithuania
was taken before RSFSR President Yeltsin announced price liberalization
in his republic. (Keith Bush)

BRITAIN WANTS SOLUTION ON BALTIC GOLD. Following meetings with
Estonian and Latvian delegations, a British Foreign Office spokesman
said on November 8 that "We want a mutually acceptable settlement
as soon as possible" regarding Baltic gold. The gold was deposited
by the Baltic States in the Bank of England before World War
II and sold in 1967 under an agreement with the USSR. The money
was used to compensate Britons who lost assets invested in Estonia,
Latvia, and Lithuania before World War II, reported Western agencies
on November 8. A Lithuanian delegation is due to talk with British
officials on November 13. (Dzintra Bungs)

BRAZIL WANTS TO DEVELOP RELATIONS WITH BALTIC STATES. While visiting
Riga, Brazilian envoy Teresa Machada Cuantella talked with Latvian
Supreme Council Chairman Anatolijs Gorbunovs about the specifics
of renewing diplomatic relations with Latvia. She told the Baltic
News Service on November 8 that Brazil wants to develop closer
ties with the Baltic States and that a group of experts will
be coming soon to evaluate modes of cooperation. She said also
that for the time being Brazil will delegate a single visiting
envoy to the three Baltic States. (Dzintra Bungs)

BALTIC PARLIAMENTARY ASSEMBLY FORMED. Radio Riga reported on
November 8 that deputies from the Supreme Councils of Estonia,
Latvia, and Lithuania met in Tallinn that day to discuss forms
of cooperation. Initial reports indicate that the participants
decided that the assembly should be a consultative body. The
Latvian delegation had wanted to accord the assembly greater
authority. The next session of the assembly is scheduled for
January. (Dzintra Bungs)

POLISH ENVOY PROTESTS LATVIA'S TRAVEL RESTRICTIONS. According
to Diena of November 8, Jaroslav Lindenberg, Poland's envoy to
Latvia, submitted a note to the Latvian government in connection
with its recent decision to limit travel by residents of Latvia
to Poland. The decision is intended to stop the sale of goods
already in short supply in Latvia for hard currency in Poland.
Lindenberg said that such a decision restricts free travel to
Poland of about 60,000 Poles living in Latvia. He urged Latvia
to review its decision; the decision has also been protested
by Latvian lawmakers as being contrary to the CSCE accords. (Dzintra
Bungs)


[English] [Russian TRANS | KOI8 | ALT | WIN | MAC | ISO5]

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