Part of the secret of success in life is to eat what you like and let the food fight it out inside. - Mark Twain
RFE/RL Daily Report

No. 159, 22 August 1991



COUP AFTERMATH - SITUATION IN THE CENTER AND RSFSR

GORBACHEV RETURNS TO MOSCOW. USSR President Mikhail Gorbachev
arrived back in Moscow early in the morning of August 22, Western
agencies reported today. He was accompanied by his wife, Raisa
Gorbacheva, who is said to be suffering from a nervous disorder
that has paralyzed her left hand, and by a young girl who left
the plane wrapped in blanket. Speaking to reporters at the airport,
Gorbachev said nothing came of attempts morally to "break" him
and his family while they were in detention in the Crimea. He
said he would shortly be holding a press conference at which
he would reveal details of his detention. Reporters said Gorbachev
looked tired but that he spoke vigorously. No further details
are available at this time [12:00 CEST] concerning Gorbachev's
immediate plans. (Elizabeth Teague)

MOST MEMBERS OF COUP ARRESTED; PUGO COMMITS SUICIDE. Most members
of the State Committee for the State of Emergency in the USSR
are under arrest and are being interrogated. One of them, Minister
of Internal Affairs Boriss Pugo, committed suicide and his wife
was hospitalized after an attempt. Defense Minister Dmitrii Yazov
was arrested, as was USSR Vice-President and self-proclaimed
"acting President" Gennadii Yanaev after his office in the Kremlin
was searched. KGB Chairman Vladimir Kryuchkov and military-industrial
complex representative Aleksandr Tizyakov were arrested after
returning from the Crimea. Their place of detention is being
kept secret. Prime Minister Valentin Pavlov is still in hospital,
not in prison. Kolkhoz leader Vasilii Starodubtsev is out of
Moscow. He and Defense Council Chairman Oleg Baklanov cannot
be arrested at present because, as USSR People's Deputies, they
have parliamentary immunity. The USSR Supreme Soviet would have
to vote to rescind their immunity. This information was given
to the RSFSR Supreme Soviet by RSFSR General RSFSR Prosecutor,
Valentin Stepankov. (RSFSR Television, August 22). (Vera Tolz,
Julia Wishnevsky, Victor Yasmann, and Sallie Wise)

MEETING IN MOSCOW TO CELEBRATE VICTORY. A mass meeting started
at 12:00 noon Moscow time in front of the RSFSR Supreme Soviet
building. Russian Television said that the meeting was called
by the RSFSR leadership to celebrate victory over the coup. A
TV moderator said that it was the population of the country that
won. The meeting will also commemorate those killed in the past
three days. In his opening address to the meeting, RSFSR Presdent
Boris Yeltsin charged that USSR Supreme Soviet Chairman Anatolii
Luk'yanov was the main organizer of the coup. Yeltsin also said
that a Russian National Guard should promptly be created and
that Vice President Aleksandr Rutskoi has been put in charge
of implementing this plan. Speaking at the meeting, Aleksandr
Yakovlev called for dismissals of hundreds of Army generals.
He also proposed to put a stop to KGB activities aimed against
the people. Then Yeltsin proposed renaming the square in front
of the RSFSR Supreme Soviet building Square of Freedom of Russia.
He said he will sign a decree on the issue within an hour. The
Soviet flag above the Russian White House has been replaced by
the Russian Tricolor. (Vera Tolz)

YELTSIN TELLS CROWD THE CPSU MUST BE STRIPPED OF POWER. Throughout
the morning, Russian Television has been screening live coverage,
first of the session of the RSFSR parliament, now of a huge mass
meeting taking place outside the parliament building. The crowd
cheered ecstatically as Yeltsin addressed them and stated that
the first steps of the Russian government in the aftermath of
the coup will be radical "deparitification" to place the CPSU
on an equal footing with other political parties and to put the
army and police under democratic, parliamentary control. (Elizabeth
Teague)

YELTSIN DECLARED "HERO OF THE USSR." The crowd cheered enthusiastically
as the mayor of Moscow, Gavriil Popov, awarded Yeltsin the USSR's
highest civilian order and declared him a "Hero of the Soviet
Union." But, Popov told the crowd, "the real heroes of the hour
are you." Then, a minute's silence was observed in honor of those
who lost their lives during the coup. RSFSR Vice President Aleksandr
Rutskoi told the crowd that August 21, 1991, was a "Day of Victory
over Fascism" as important as Victory Day at the close of World
War 2. (Elizabeth Teague)

ECONOMIC REFORMS TO ACCELERATE. Following the addresses of Yeltsin
and RSFSR Prime Minister Ivan Silaev, Chairman of the RSFSR Supreme
Soviet Ruslan Khasbulatov told the crowd around the RSFSR Parliament
building that economic reforms would accelerate and deepen in
the wake of the failed coup. Standing behind the main speakers
was Stanislav Shatalin, one of the main architects of the "500-Days"
program which Gorbachev rejected last fall in favor of a more
moderate reform plan. Shatalin looked in very good spirits and
in apparently good health as well. The push for more radical
reform by the RSFSR leadership could spell a comeback for Shatalin
and his economic program. (John Tedstrom)

GORBACHEV WILL RESHUFFLE GOVERNMENT. Silaev spoke with Gorbachev
about his plans for the USSR government late August 21. Silaev
told Gorbachev that Russia intends to give him strong support
in order to accelerate economic changes "on the condition that
the authors of the reforms not be the same," according to Western
reports. Silaev said that Gorbachev agreed. Silaev told crowds
at the RSFSR parliament building that the KGB would no longer
"be a state within a state." (John Tedstrom)

RUSSIAN SUPREME SOVIET DISCUSSED DISMANTLING KGB. The emergency
session of the RSFSR SupSov put forward the issue of disbanding
the USSR KGB and revising the law on state security organs, adopted
last May. The Chairman of the session Ruslan Khasbulatov supported
the proposal and suggested that the concrete draft will be prepared
by the Russian KGB. The same fate apparently awaits the USSR
Procuracy, which during the coup sent regional prosecutors an
order to obey the GKChP. (Victor Yasmann)

LENINGRAD JOURNALIST TALKED TO GORBACHEV. One of the first people
who managed to telephone Gorbachev when communication with the
Soviet President was restored was a Leningrad journalist from
the Komsomol newspaper Smena, Georgii Urushadze. He gave details
of his conversation on August 21 to RFE/RL. Gorbachev reportedly
told the journalist that he was arrested at his dacha on August
19 together with his daughter and two granddaughters. They were
in hysterics, but he [Gorbachev] was calm and managed to calm
down the others. Gorbachev also told the journalist that many
of his personal bodyguards remained loyal to him and were also
held in detention at the dacha. (Vera Tolz)

YELTSIN REMOVES KRAVCHENKO AS BROADCAST CHIEF. Yeltsin issued
a decree August 21 placing the Soviet Central Radio and TV system
under the control of the Russian government. The decree removed
Leonid Kravchenko as head of central radio and television. TASS
said the decree will stand until Gorbachev makes a subsequent
ruling. The RSFSR TV newscast Vesti said that the RSFSR Prosecutor's
Office should investigate Kravchenko's activities. Vesti also
said that even before it became clear that the coup had fizzled
out, 150 employees of Central TV sent a letter to Kravchenko
and the USSR Union of Journalists, saying that their work under
emergency rule was impossible. RSFSR TV reported that Soviet
journalists filmed an 8-hour tape on the events of the past three
days. Kravchenko, however, banned the showing of it. RSFSR TV
showed yesterday some clips from this tape and promised more.
(Vera Tolz)

YELTSIN DISMISSES REGIONAL OFFICIALS. Acting on the recommendation
of the RSFSR Supreme Soviet, Yeltsin issued a decree on August
21 dismissing four regional soviet executive committee chairmen
for "supporting the unconstitutional activities of the so-called
State Committee for the State of Emergency and for non-fulfillment
of the decrees of the RSFSR President," Central Television reported
yesterday. The four are Gorov (Krasnoyarsk krai), Borodaev (Rostov
oblast'), Porkhov (Samara oblast'), and Toporkov (Lipetsk oblast').


KOBETS A RISING STAR; CALLS FOR EXECUTIONS. One military man
whose career stands to profit greatly from the preceding days
events is RSFSR Defense Minister, Colonel General Konstantin
Kobets. At a meeting of the RSFSR parliament marking the failure
of the coup held this morning (August 22), Kobets was wildly
applauded by the gathered delegates. Minutes later a deputy recommended
that Kobets be considered for the position of USSR Defense Minister
(Army General Dmitrii Yazov, one of the conspirators, has been
identified in official statements as "former Defense Minister").
The 52-year-old general is a communications specialist who served
as a Deputy Chief of the USSR General Staff prior to joining
the Yeltsin government. On August 21, according to Western agencies,
he said that the leaders of the coup attempt should be shot,
and that he had agreed to assume the position of RSFSR Defense
Minister only after receiving permission to execute the conspirators.
"I will be perfectly calm when I personally command the firing
squad that shoots those junta bastards," he reportedly said.
(Stephen Foye)

MOISEEV'S ROLE? Earlier speculation that Mikhail Moiseev was
a part of the coup effort has been discounted by Pentagon officials,
CNN reported on the evening of August 21. Moiseev is Chief of
the General Staff and has played a high profile role in recent
arms control negotiations. While he had a long history of criticizing
the reform process, he nevertheless appeared to hold more moderate
positions than the increasingly militant Defense Minister, Dmitrii
Yazov. (Stephen Foye)

LIMITED MILITARY SUPPORT FOR THE COUP. One of the most obvious
and important observations characterizing coup post-mortems in
the West and the Soviet Union is the very limited support that
the coup leadership apparently enjoyed among military units.
This phenomenon appears to reflect the many splits that were
obvious in the armed forces well before the coup attempt. In
addition to well-publicized defections from several elite divisions
in Moscow, the fact that the Leningrad Military District Commander
cut an early deal with reformist Leningrad mayor Anatolii Sobchak
not to deploy troops against the population was a particularly
serious loss for the conspirators. US officials and Western analysts,
moreover, were reportedly surprised by the small number of military
units that were actually sent into action nationwide. According
to CNN of August 21, Pentagon officials characterized military
operations in the Baltic as pathetic. (Stephen Foye)

YAKOVLEV CONDEMNS THE CPSU. "It is immoral to be a member of
such a Party," Aleksandr Yakovlev told Vesti August 21, referring
to what he branded "cowardly" behavior by the CPSU leadership
during the coup. The Party, Yakovlev argued, has boasted that
it was best champion of the people's interests. But the coup
was staged, the USSR President and CPSU General Secretary was
illegally overthrown, and, worst of all, human blood was shed,
yet the Party uttered no protest. (Along with other leaders of
the Movement for Democratic Reforms, Eduard Shevardnadze and
Eduard Sagalaev, Yakovlev was seen on the barricades near the
Russian White House the night of August 20-21.) (Julia Wishnevsky)


AND RSFSR CP POLITBURO MEMBER AGREES WITH YAKOVLEV. Yakovlev's
view was echoed the same evening in an interview with RFE/RL
by Aleksei Bryachikhin, a member of the RSFSR CP Politburo and
a Moscow prefect appointed by radical Mayor Gavriil Popov. Bryachikhin
pointed out that the leaderships of the CPSU, the RSFSR Communist
Party, and the Moscow Party Committee have all kept silent and
thus in fact approved of the coup against the Party's General
Secretary. If he learns that the Party leadership orchestrated
the coup, Bryachikhin added, he will quit the RCP Politburo.
(Julia Wishnevsky)

YAKOVLEV SAID HE EXPECTED PLOT. Yakovlev said in an interview
with Austrian TV on August 21 that he had warned Gorbachev of
the danger of a coup d'etat since the 28th Party Congress. Yakovlev
maintained that he even gave Gorbachev the names of potential
plotters, and indicated that among those names were those of
some of the members of the Emergency Committee. Yakovlev said
that Gorbachev did not take the warning seriously and told Yakovlev
that these persons "lack the courage to stage a coup." (Alexander
Rahr)

WHO WAS BEHIND THE COUP? Former USSR foreign ministry adviser
Vyacheslav Dashichev revealed on German TV (ZDF's "Heute Journal")
on August 21 that the first deputy chairman of the Defense Council,
Oleg Baklanov, was the initiator of the coup. Dashichev said
his information is absolutely reliable because it came from Yeltsin's
entourage. Dashichev asserted that KGB boss Kryuchkov and defense
minister Yazov were only half-heartedly involved in the coup,
and Baklanov dismissed them from the Emergency Committee after
their failure to seize the RSFSR parliament building. Dashichev
also asserted that Baklanov's main supporters had been Moscow
Party boss Yurii Prokof'ev and Politburo member Oleg Shenin.
(Alexander Rahr)

SPECULATION THAT GORBACHEV ORCHESTRATED COUP HIMSELF. Interviewed
August 21 by CNN, Georgian President Zviad Gamsakhurdia said
he thought that Gorbachev himself had planned the coup in order
to strengthen his political position before the Soviet presidential
elections. US President George Bush rejected this hypothesis
as "ridiculous." World chess champion Gary Kasparov similarly
suggested that Gorbachev "was involved" in the coup, although
it was difficult to say to what extent, as it was "his only chance"
to boost his popularity. Former Soviet Foreign Minister Eduard
Shevardnadze categorized Gorbachev's decision to leave Moscow
on vacation as "a gross error" and expressed the hope that he
was "the victim and not the perpetrator" of the putsch. (Liz
Fuller)

BESSMERTNYKH BACK AT WORK. The whereabouts of Foreign Minister
Aleksandr Bessmertnykh during the coup were something of a mystery.
He had been reported "ill" (see Daily Report, August 21), and
Western diplomats were unable to reach him by telephone. However,
an interim charge d'affaires in the Soviet embassy in Tokyo,
Yurii Kuznetsov, told Western reporters in Tokyo yesterday that
Bessmertnykh had been on vacation. Meanwhile, Bessmertnykh surfaced
yesterday afternoon at a press conference in Moscow, at which
he declared that Gorbachev's ouster was unconstitutional. (Sallie
Wise)

AMBARTSUMOV: NO UNION TREATY WITH MUTALIBOV, NIYAZOV, MAKHKAMOV.
At today's session of the RSFSR Supreme Soviet broadcast live
on Moscow TV, Evgenii Ambartsumov urged not to rush the signing
of the Union treaty as long as people like Ayaz Mutalibov, president
of Azerbaijan, Kakhar Makhkamov, president of Tajikistan, and
Sapurmurad Niyazov, president of Turkmenistan, remained in office.
Some RSFSR deputies had earlier called for Azerbaijan not to
be allowed to sign the treaty because of its treatment of Armenians.
Ambartsumov cited Niyazov's suppression of the popular front
in Turkmenistan, and Makhkamov's role in the February 1990 events
in Dushanbe. (Ann Sheehy)

YELTSIN WANTS NO UNDUE DELAY IN SIGNING UNION TREATY. In his
address to the meeting outside the RSFSR parliament today carried
live by Moscow TV, Yeltsin said that there should be no undue
delay in signing the Union treaty, but that after the events
of the past three days there should be some corrections to the
text. In particular, he repeated that the Russian republic would
now need its own national guard. (Ann Sheehy)

PLEA FOR LIFTING OF SANCTIONS. At a press conference in Moscow
on August 21, USSR First Deputy Prime Minister Vladimir Shcherbakov
appealed to foreign governments not to go ahead with sanctions
against the Soviet Union, Western agencies reported that day.
Shcherbakov cited a Soviet government statement that asked all
states and international economic organizations not to suspend
economic cooperation at this "difficult period." He said that
sanctions would only make life more difficult for the Soviet
people who are faced with acute shortages of food and fuel. The
post-coup standing of Shcherbakov and, indeed, that of all of
his colleagues in the government, is not clear at this time.
(Keith Bush)

WESTERN BANKS WITHHELD PAYMENTS. An unidentified German banker
told Western agencies August 21 that major Western banks, reacting
to the attempted coup in the USSR, had delayed payments into
accounts held in the West by the Soviet foreign trade bank Vneshekonombank.
This would appear to confirm complaints aired in statements by
Vneshekonombank on August 20 and 21. (Keith Bush).

PATRIARCH ANATHEMATIZES PARTICIPANTS OF COUP. RSFSR TV's Vesti
reported on August 21 that Patriarch Aleksii II the same day
anathematized all those who participated in the failed coup.
(Anathema is a formal curse excommunicating a person from a church.)
(Oxana Antic)

SITUATION IN THE BALTIC STATES

LATVIA REAFFIRMS INDEPENDENCE. The Latvian Supreme Council affirmed
Latvia's independence on August 21 shortly after noon, reported
Radio Riga that day. The legislators, voting 111 to 13 with not
abstentions, adopted what was called a "Constitutional Law" that
modified the May 4, l990 declaration stating that Latvia was
working toward restoring de facto independence. The new law ends
the transition period toward independence that started on May
4, 1990 and declares that "Latvia is an independent democratic
republic in which the sovereign power of the Latvian state belongs
to the people of Latvia, and whose internal legal status is defined
by the Constitution of the Republic of Latvia of 15 February
1922." (Dzintra Bungs)

SOVIET TROOPS IN LATVIA TO START RETURNING TO BASES. According
to Diena of August 21, Latvian Supreme Council Deputy Chairman
Dainis Ivans had talked earlier day with Colonel General Fedor
Kuzmin, Commander of the USSR Baltic District, about Soviet troop
presence in Latvia. Kuzmin told Ivans that the pullback of troops
from the sites in Latvia that they had occupied since August
19 would start today, August 22. It appears most of the Soviet
troops used in implementing the orders of the USSR State of Emergency
Committee were already based in Latvia. It would therefore be
highly unlikely that there would be mass departure of Soviet
soldiers from Latvia at this time. (Dzintra Bungs)

OMON ORDERED TO STAY IN BASES. Around 7:30PM on August 21 Latvia's
Acting Deputy Minister of Internal Affairs Peteris Jakimovs telephoned
the USSR Deputy Minister of Internal Affairs Boris Gromov, reported
Diena that evening. Gromov said that he had ordered all OMON
units in Latvia and Lithuania to return to their bases and stay
there. According to Jakimovs, Gromov appeared to be unsure whether
the OMON units would follow the orders consistently. On August
21 OMON units had gathered near the parliament building while
the Supreme Council was in session; they fired shots and threw
tear gas canisters at demonstrators there; apparently only one
person was injured. (Dzintra Bungs)

RADIO RIGA RESUMES BROADCASTING. Twenty-six Soviet paratroopers
started to leave the Latvian Riga Building on August 21 around
8:40 PM local time, reported Diena that evening. The building
had been occupied the building since the early hours of August
20. Radio Riga resumed regular broadcasts at 9:30 PM local time,
transmitting first Latvia's national anthem and then the Lord's
Prayer. During the occupation of the building local radio stations
kept the population informed, broadcasting news and official
announcements from the Latvian government and Supreme Council.
Latgale TV, based in Rezekne, transmitted programs from noon
to midnight while the Riga TV building was occupied. Regular
telephone and telegraph communications resumed around 6.30 PM
on August 21.(Dzintra Bungs)

POLITICAL STRIKE ENDED IN LATVIA. Andris Zorgins, speaking on
Radio Riga on August 21 and 22, thanked all those who had participated
in the political strike and asked them to go back to work, since
the immediate goals of the strike had been achieved. He added
that the Strike Coordinating Council would continue its work
to until all the demands of the strikers are met. These demands
include the pullback of all troops from the sites that they occupy,
remuneration for all damage done by those acting on behalf of
the USSR State of Emergency Committee, the start of legal proceedings
against those guilty of criminal acts. Zorgins is deputy chairman
of the Strike Coordinating Council. (Dzintra Bungs)

TROOPS LEAVE TALLINN TV TOWER, TAPA STATION. As news of the coup
failure reached the Baltic States, troops occupying the Tallinn
TV tower withdrew, freeing five civilians trapped on the 22nd
floor, Estonian Radio reported on August 21. Just hours earlier,
additional troops had been brought in to reinforce those paratroopers
who had stormed the TV tower early on August 21. Troops also
vacated the railway station at Tapa yesterday evening. Paratroopers
belonging to the same Pskov division as the men at the TV tower
had occupied the key railway station earlier on August 21. Tapa
is the major junction for Soviet military trains in the area.
(Riina Kionka)

RUSSIA RECOGNIZES ESTONIAN INDEPENDENCE. The RSFSR was the first
republic to recognize Estonia's state independence on August
21, the Estonian Foreign Ministry reported that day. RSFSR representative
to the Estonia Oleg Popovich made the announcement on behalf
of the RSFSR Foreign Ministry, saying that appropriate documents
will be exchanged in the future when the political situation
has stabilized. Lithuanian Prime Minister Vagnorius sent a congratulatory
message to Estonia's Prime Minister Savisaar last night, and
the Lithuanian Supreme Council is expected to take similar action
in the next few days. On August 20, Estonia declared that its
transition period to independence--declared last year on March
30--had ended. (Riina Kionka)

SOVIETS WITHDRAW FROM SOME SEIZED BUILDINGS. On August 21 when
it became clear that the coup had failed, Soviet troops left
the Vilnius communications center, the Kaunas radio and television
center, and other buildings that they had recently seized. The
Vilnius TV and radio facilities and other buildings seized in
January, however, remain occupied, but broadcasts of programs
from the television tower have been halted, Radio Independent
Lithuania reported August 22. Lithuanian Supreme Council chairman
Vytautas Landsbergis spoke today with Vilnius MVD commander Colonel
Nikolai Mironenko and USSR General Staff Chief Mikhail Moiseev
about the return of the seized buildings. Moiseev said that he
would bring up the matter with Gorbachev. (Saulius Girnius)

LITHUANIAN KILLED NEAR PARLIAMENT. Later that evening a jeep
with 4 Soviet soldiers drove up to a checkpoint near the Lithuanian
parliament building and threw explosives, Radio Independent Lithuania
reported August 22. In the ensuing exchange of gunfire a Lithuanian
security guard was killed, and two National Defense department
members were injured as was one of the Soviet soldiers who was
based in Snieckus (the other 3 escaped). The identities of the
Lithuanian victims have not been announced, but the matter is
still being investigated. (Saulius Girnius)

GOVERNMENT DECREE AGAINST OMON. Radio Independent Lithuania reported
on August 22 that the Lithuanian government had issued a decree
ordering the Lithuanian Ministry of Internal Affairs to temporarily
take control over the OMON troops based in Lithuania. The OMON
were ordered to obey the decree and its members were forbidden
to leave their bases. The decree that went into effect at 11:00
p.m. on August 21 stated that Vilnius OMON commander Boleslav
Makutinowicz would be held personally accountable for its implementation.
The decree also suggested that the leaders of the Soviet armed
forces in Vilnius should take back the military equipment and
weapons recently received from the USSR. (Saulius Girnius)

VAGNORIUS CONGRATULATES ESTONIA AND LATVIA. Lithuanian Prime
Minister Gediminas Vagnorius sent telegrams to his counterparts
in Estonia and Latvia, Edgar Savissar and Ivars Godmanis, congratulating
their republics' decisions to proclaim independence, Radio Independent
Lithuania reported August 22. In the name of the Lithuanian government
and people, Vagnorius welcomed the decisions and expressed the
hope that all the sanctions that had been imposed by the USSR
on the Baltic republics would be lifted. (Saulius Girnius)

LANDSBERGIS COMMENTS. In an interview with the RFE/RL Lithuanian
Service on August 21, Landsbergis welcomed the failure of the
coup, hoping that "the situation will be much more suited to
peaceful and democratic decisions." The danger for Lithuania
remains, however, according to Landsbergis, who warned of further
Soviet military action. He expressed concern over "military forces
in the Baltic States and the Baltic Sea that are in the hands
of people who think in the old way." While new power and government
relationships are being forged in Moscow, the situation "may
be insufficiently defined," Landsbergis said. The Soviet forces
"may take self-willed actions." (Gytis Liulevicius)

LITHUANIAN REPRESENTATIVE IN STOCKHOLM. Lithuanian Deputy Foreign
Minister Valdemaras Katkus weathered the coup in Sweden, and
attended the opening of a Lithuanian representation in Stockholm
on August 20, the RFE Lithuanian Service reported August 21.
Katkus described the representation as a "Lithuanian Information
Bureau," but regarded the presence of many ambassadors and Swedish
government officials at the opening as a de facto recognition
of the representation as a part of the diploma ic corps in Stockholm.
(Gytis Liulevicius)

LITHUANIA BANS SELECT MASS MEDIA. The Lithuanian Ministry of
Internal Affairs "temporarily halted the publ cation and distribution"
of 18 newspapers on Lithuanian terr tory, Radio Independent Lithuania
reported August 22. The ban invokes Article 3 of the new Lithuania-RSFSR
treaty, under which both countries reserve the right to prohibit
actions "seeking to destroy [...] independence by force." The
list includes all the newspapers permitted to publish during
the short-lived coup, the most prominent being Pravda, Izvestia,
Krasnaya zvezda, Sovetskaya Rossiya, with the addition of local
Lithuanian papers loyal to the old order: Litva sovetskaya and
its Lithuanian-language counterpart Tarybu Lietuva, and the official
newspaper of the anti-independence organization "Edinstvo," published
in Lithuanian, Polish, and Russian. (Gytis Liulevicius)

SITUATION IN THE REPUBLICS

KRAVCHUK TALKS TO GORBACHEV. Radio Kiev on August 21 carried
an interview with Leonid Kravchuk, chairman of the Ukrainian
Supreme Soviet, after he spoke by telephone with Gorbachev. Kravchuk
told correspondents that he informed Gorbachev that he had phoned
Luk'yanov earlier in the day with an ultimatum demanding that
Gorbachev be present at the forthcoming session of the USSR Supreme
Soviet. Kravchuk also said that he had intended, within a day
or two, to ask the United Nations to immediately convene a session
of its Security Council to discuss the situation in the Soviet
Union. The Ukrainian leader revealed that in the Crimea Gorbachev
was able to learn about developments from Ukrainian television
and radio. (Roman Solchanyk)

UKRAINIAN COMMUNISTS ISSUE STATEMENT. The Secretariat of the
Communist Party of Ukraine issued a statement yesterday, which
was carried by Radio Kiev on August 21. The statement refers
to "the dangerous development of events" in the country that
threatens "the independence and territorial integrity of the
Soviet state." Such phraseology, it will be recalled, was also
used in the first documents of the GKChP. "In this situation,"
the statement continues, "the leadership of the country has opted
for taking extraordinary measures." The statement, although it
does not explicitly support the GKChP, does not denounce it either.
(Roman Solchanyk)

PROTESTS IN UKRAINE. Radio Kiev on August 21 reported on demonstrations
held in several Ukrainian cities that day organized by democratic
forces in protest against the coup. In Ternopil', in Western
Ukraine, the meeting appealed to the Ukrainian Supreme Soviet
to convene an extraordinary session that would declare Ukraine
secession from the USSR. The same demand was voiced at a demonstration
in Chernihiv. (Roman Solchanyk)

TASS DEFENDS MUTALIBOV. TASS August 21 carried a statement by
the Azerbaijani news agency AzerINFORM denying a report that
Azerbaijani President Mutalibov had welcomed Gorbachev's ouster.
AzerINFORM attributed the claim to Radio France International
and denied that Mutalibov had given RFI an interview. In fact
the original report was carried by Reuters August 19 and was
based on an IRNA dispatch. (Liz Fuller)

NAZARBAEV TALKS TO GORBACHEV. According to the first edition
of Russian TV's Vesti news show after the station resumed independent
broadcasting on August 21, Kazakhstan's President Nursultan Nazarbaev
succeeded in reaching Gorbachev by telephone--apparently among
the first leaders to do so--and had asked that the Soviet president
not talk to putsch leaders who had flown to the Crimea and who
were, according to Gorbachev, trying to see him. Nazarbaev reportedly
said that he had told Gorbachev to wait for the arrival of the
delegation from the RSFSR Supreme Soviet. TASS, however, suggests
that it was Gorbachev who phoned Nazarbaev. (Bess Brown)

AKAEV ATTACKS REPUBLICAN COMMUNISTS. Kirgiz President Askar Akaev
has already begun to use the failed right-wing coup in Moscow
to discredit the conservative Communist Party apparat in Kyrgyzstan.
In an appeal to the people of the republic, issued yesterday
afternoon and reported on Radio Moscow, Akaev said that all progressive
forces in Kyrgyzstan, but not the leadership of the CP, had condemned
the "military-Party putsch." Akaev also proclaimed his support
for Yeltsin and Nazarbaev. TASS reported that on August 21 Akaev
issued a decree banning organizations of political parties from
all government offices. (Bess Brown)

KARIMOV REJECTS PUTSCH. Uzbek President Islam Karimov, inclined
at first to sympathize with the coup in Moscow, issued a decree
on August 21 declaring that all decisions of organizations and
enterprises in Uzbekistan must be in accord with the laws of
the republic and of the USSR, and declaring invalid the orders
of the "state-of-emergency committee" which violate those laws.
(Bess Brown)

NIYAZOV SAYS COUP DECREES INVALID. Turkmenistan's President Saparmurad
Niyazov issued a decree August 21 saying that the decisions of
the "putschists" are not valid in Turkmenistan, RFE/RL's Turkmen
service was told by telephone from Ashkhabad today. This is the
first decree Niyazov issued on the Soviet coup. Turkmenistan's
Popular Front Agzybirlik's leaders previously had condemned the
Emergency Committee, calling its decisions null and void. (Zarif
Nazar)

MOLDAVIAN PARLIAMENT DEMANDS COUP ASSESSMENT. At an extraordinary
sitting August 21, the Moldavian parliament voted a resolution
terming the coup d'etat of recent days "an attempt to put into
practice the program of the 'Soyuz' group of deputies and of
similar anti-democratic groups." It called on the USSR Supreme
Soviet and on republican parliaments to support the following
demands of Moldavia: immediate dissolution of the Emergency Committee
and an investigation into the circumstances of the coup; dismissal
of Luk'yanov in connection with his apparent role in the coup;
immediate reinstatement of Gorbachev as USSR President (this
had been demanded by the Moldavian leadership from the first
day of the coup); and a meeting of leaders of all republics before
the end of August in Kishinev to discuss the lessons of the coup
and ways to overcome its consequences. (Vladimir Socor)

MOLDAVIAN APPEAL TO ARMED FORCES. In addition, the Moldavian
parliament appealed to soldiers and officers of the USSR armed
forces to refuse participation in any anti-constitutional actions,
to follow in all circumstances the laws of the republics in which
they are stationed, and to strictly observe the human rights
of citizens. The Moldavian parliament also honored the civilians
who were killed and wounded in recent days in Moscow and in the
Baltic States. The parliament restated "Moldavia's firm resolve
to continue striving for full sovereignty and independence."
(Vladimir Socor)

USSR - OTHER NEWS


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