Every individual has a place to fill in the world, and is important, in some respect, whether he chooses to be so or not. - Nathaniel Hawthorne
RFE/RL Daily Report

No. 147, 05 August 1991





BALTIC STATES



FUNERAL OF SEVEN SLAIN LAW OFFICERS. On August 3, the 7 Lithuanian
police and customs officials killed at Medininkai on July 31
were buried in the Antakalnis cemetery, Radio Independent Lithuania
reported that day. About 100,000 people lined the streets of
Vilnius as the flag-draped coffins went from the sports complex
to the cathedral, where two bishops and four priests conducted
funeral services. The US consul general in Leningrad, Jack Gosnell,
and chairman of the German-Baltic Parliamentary Friendship Circle
Wolfgang von Stetten attended the services. (Saulius Girnius)


UNKNOWN RUSSIAN GROUP CLAIMS RESPONSIBILITY FOR MEDININKAI. An
anonymous caller claimed that the "Security Service" was responsible
for the killings at Medininkai, Russian TV reported August 3.
The Nezavisimaya gazeta editorial office received the call, in
the name of the "Security Service," an unknown Russian organization
ostensibly working "to safeguard the interests of Russian people
in Lithuania." The editorial office notified the permanent Lithuanian
mission in Moscow and the USSR Interior Ministry. According to
the TV report, the Lithuanian mission believes that "this is
an attempt to transfer responsibility from the real culprits
to the allegedly existing Security Service." So far, the official
investigation of the murders has failed to yield results. (Gytis
Liulevicius)

LANDSBERGIS SENDS TELEGRAM TO DOGUZHIEV. On August 4 Lithuanian
Supreme Council Chairman Vytautas Landsbergis sent a telegram
to USSR First Deputy Prime Minister Vitalii Doguzhiev, head of
the Soviet delegation for negotiations with Lithuania. In an
interview with the RFE/RL Lithuanian Service on August 5, Landsbergis
said that the telegram raised the issue of building mutual trust
between Lithuania and the USSR, previously agreed to by both
sides in order to further good-faith negotiations. In this connection,
the telegram inquired whether the USSR will begin withdrawing
the OMON from Lithuania and returning occupied property. The
USSR is given two weeks to respond, Landsbergis said. (Gytis
Liulevicius)

CROATIA RECOGNIZES LITHUANIA. The Croatian parliament voted "overwhelmingly"
to recognize Lithuania on August 3, Tanjug reported that day.
The vote reciprocated a July 30 Lithuanian resolution recognizing
Slovenian and Croatian independence. Croatian assembly president
Zarko Domljan was quoted as saying that Croatia would attempt
to "establish comprehensive cooperation with the Republic of
Lithuania." (Gytis Liulevicius)

BUSH SEEKS SEPARATE TRADING STATUS FOR BALTICS. On August 2,
US President George Bush sent to Congress the US-Soviet trade
agreement with separate trade benefits for the three Baltic States,
The Journal of Commerce reported August 3. He requested separate
"most favored nation" trade benefits for Estonia, Latvia, and
Lithuania on a temporary basis that would become permanent when
the US recognizes their independence from the USSR. In a related
move, the US customs service will start recording trade data
with each of the Baltic States separately and not as part of
the USSR trade statistics. (Saulius Girnius)

LATVIAN OFFICIAL TALKS WITH PUGO. Latvian Deputy Prime Minister
Ilmars Bisers met for two hours with USSR Minister of Internal
Affairs Boriss Pugo on July 30, reported Diena of August 1. The
meeting was proposed by Pugo to inform Bisers about MVD proposals
related to the Latvian-USSR consultations. The principal topic
of discussion was OMON--its status and activities in Latvia.
Pugo admitted that the actual situation, where, apparently, the
OMON is not answerable to any government or lawmaking institution,
is abnormal. Bisers raised the question of returning property
belonging to Latvia's Ministry of Internal Affairs--presumably
property seized by OMON and other institutions subordinate to
the MVD. (Dzintra Bungs)

SOVIET MILITARY'S SPRING DRAFT A FLOP IN LATVIA. Latvia's Women's
League, an organization helping young men serving in the USSR
armed forces and coordinating alternative service in Latvia,
told Diena of August 1 that the quota for the spring draft in
the Soviet military had been fulfilled by only 15%. About 75%
of the draft age youth had opted for alternative service in Latvia.
Janis Duda, Latvian SSR Military Commissar, however, claimed
that the draft had been fulfilled by 33%. In a related development,
Radio Riga reported on August 3 about the local draft office
in Balvi coercing young men, already performing alternative service,
to switch over to regular military service. (Dzintra Bungs)

LATVIAN CP LEADER ACTIVE IN MOSCOW COMMODITIES EXCHANGE. Riga
Holding Company sold 70 lots of 40 shares each at the Moscow
Commodities Exchange on August 1, reported Diena that day. Each
lot sold for not less than 150,000 rubles. The shares were presumably
for enterprises situated in Latvia. It is not clear who purchased
the shares. The Riga Holding Company represents 38 enterprises,
one bank, and one insurance company in Latvia. Present in Moscow
was the holding company's chairman of the board, Ojars Potreki,
who is also Secretary of the pro-Moscow Latvian Communist Party's
Central Committee. The Riga Holding Company has registered with
the USSR Finance Ministry as issuing shares worth 2.65 billion
rubles. (Dzintra Bungs)



USSR - ALL-UNION TOPICS



GORBACHEV ADDRESSES NATION ON UNION TREATY. The August 2 Vremya
started with a 15-minute address by USSR President Mikhail Gorbachev
on the Union treaty. Gorbachev said that the RSFSR, Kazakhstan,
and Uzbekistan would sign the treaty on August 20, with the other
republics following. The timetable would allow Ukraine to finish
its examination of the draft, Armenia to hold its referendum
on secession, and Moldavia to take a decision on the treaty.
The peoples of Georgia, Latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia would
also "be able to determine their position on this vital matter."
(Ann Sheehy)

RADIO ROSSII COMMENTARY OF GORBACHEV ADDRESS. Commenting on Gorbachev's
address on Radio Rossii on August 4, A. Gelenkov of Radio Rossii's
Information Service asked whether in fact all the amendments
to the Union treaty demanded by the RSFSR Supreme Soviet had
in fact been made, and wondered whether, if not, the Russian
parliament would refuse to ratify the treaty in the fall. Gelenkov
foresaw the possibility of a sharp conflict between the executive
and legislative branches in the republic. (Ann Sheehy)

CABINET MEETING ON THE ECONOMY. An expanded session of the Presidium
of the USSR Cabinet of Ministers met August 3; the prime ministers
of all republics except Lithuania attended. The gathering was
reported to have discussed the food and fuel situation and the
nation's financial and monetary condition. It was agreed that
a presidential decree should be prepared on foodstuffs and consumer
goods; the decree was published August 4, TASS reported August
3 and 4. USSR Prime Minister Valentin Pavlov and the heads of
republican governments were charged with elaborating within ten
days a package of urgent measures for stabilizing the nation's
financial and monetary situation. (Keith Bush)

PRESIDENTIAL DECREE ON FOOD AND CONSUMER GOODS. The decree stipulates
that priority in supplies be granted to consumer goods industries.
It allocates hard currency to the imports of grain, medicine,
building supplies, and spare parts for consumer durables. Farms
are promised additional incentives, including half of imported
consumer goods and relevant producer goods if they meet and overfulfill
their procurement quotas. The presidential decree is a relic
of the exhortative command economy. Farms and farmers are unlikely
to produce and market adequate or abundant supplies until agricultural
prices are liberalized in order to adjust the town-country terms
of trade and until the ruble is internally convertible. (Keith
Bush)

EBRD TEAM IN THE USSR. A delegation of directors and officials
from the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development arrived
in the USSR on August 4 for a six-day visit, RFE/RL's London
bureau reported August 4. The team is expected to discuss such
issues as industrial restructuring, conversion, privatization,
energy, finances, and the relationship between Moscow and the
republics. It is not readily apparent how the EBRD's advice and
technical assistance will be coordinated with those of the International
Monetary Fund and World Bank, who also have a team touring the
USSR (see The Financial Times of July 25). (Keith Bush)

YAKOVLEV DISENCHANTED WITH SOCIALISM. "More and more I am coming
to the conclusion that our tragedy stems from Marxist dogma,"
Aleksandr Yakovlev told TASS August 2. Stalin practiced Marxism,
albeit in a distorted way, Yakovlev said, adding that he is disenchanted
with Socialism. Yakovlev explained that three months ago he had
submitted to Gorbachev a letter of resignation as the President's
senior adviser. Yakolev had initially believed that the CPSU
could renew itself but does not believe in it anymore, while
Gorbachev does, Yakovlev said, explaining the reasons for his
resignation. He added that some provisions of the new Party program
approved by the CPSU Central Committee last month may be good,
but it is too late now since the people have lost faith in the
CPSU. A former Politburo member and Party Secretary, Yakovlev
has publicly criticized the Marxist concept of violence and dictatorship
at least since 1989. (Julia Wishnevsky)

MARKOVIC VISIT ENDS. Yugoslav Prime Minister Ante Markovic said
upon returning to Belgrade August 2 that his visit to the USSR
had exceeded his expectations, both politically and economically.
According to Tanjug the same day, Markovic predicted that an
agreement on Soviet-Yugoslav relations signed during his trip
would ease the burden on Yugoslavia's economy. While in Moscow,
Markovic met with USSR President Mikhail Gorbachev, RSFSR President
Boris Yeltsin, and Prime Minister Pavlov, all of whom stressed
the need for Yugoslavia to remain united. (Sallie Wise)

OFFICIALS ON COOPERATION WITH CUBA. During a joint press conference
with Markovic August 2, Pavlov declared that "Cuba was, is, and
will be our friend and...partner." He added that "no one has
the right to interfere in our bilateral relations," TASS reported
August 2. Meanwhile, General Mikhail Surkov, the top CPSU official
in the armed forced, criticized US President George Bush's suggestion
during last week's summit that the USSR stop aiding Cuba. The
Los Angeles Times of August 3 quoted Surkov as saying Bush's
statements were "disrespectful." (Sallie Wise)

USSR, EC SIGN PROTOCOL ON TECHNICAL COOPERATION. TASS reported
August 2 that the USSR and the European Community that day signed
a program of technical cooperation designed to promote reforms
in the USSR. The agreement was signed by EC External Relations
Minister Frans Andriessen and Soviet permanent representative
to the EC Lev Voronin. According to TASS, the protocol provides
for technical cooperation in energy, transport, food distribution,
financial services, and management training. (Sallie Wise)

SOUTH KOREAN CONSULATES IN THE USSR? According to information
from diplomatic sources, South Korea is intending to open consulates
in Tashkent, Alma-Ata, and on Sakhalin in 1992, Novosti reported
August 2 from Peking. These are areas where there are concentrations
of ethnic Koreans. It is thought that one of the chief activities
of the consulates will be to combat North Korean propaganda aimed
at the local Koreans. (Ann Sheehy)

CHINESE CONCERN THAT USSR IS ABANDONING MARXISM. According to
Western agency reports August 2, the Beijing Youth News has published
an article expressing concern over the new CPSU program, which
would eliminate references to Marxism. The article reportedly
viewed the revised CPSU program as a revision of "the nature
of the Soviet Communist Party, [its] guiding ideology and guiding
principles." It went on to charge that the West is pressuring
the USSR to "become a member of the Western camp" in return for
economic aid. (Sallie Wise)



USSR - IN THE REPUBLICS



RESULTS OF DPKR ORGANIZING CONFERENCE. The Democratic Party of
Communists of Russia (DPKR) held an organizing conference in
Moscow August 2-3, attended by more than 800 delegates from all
republics and regions of the RSFSR, and decided to form a political
party "within the CPSU," Soviet news agencies reported. A founding
congress will be held in October; RSFSR Vice President Aleksandr
Rutskoi will head the temporary organizing committee but has
said that because he is the RSFSR Vice President, he will not
stand for election as DPKR leader. 7,230 applications for membership
have already been received, which is enough to permit the DKPR
to apply for registration as a republican political organization.
This week Rutskoi plans to meet with CPSU Central Committee members
and Gorbachev to gain recognition of the DPKR as a separate party
within the CPSU. Should recognition not be granted, Rutskoi says
the DPKR is ready to leave the CPSU. The conference also adopted
a resolution demanding that the CPSU form a commission to preserve
and make accessible the Party's archives. (Dawn Mann)

CPSU SECRETARIAT REACTS. On August 3, the CPSU Secretariat issued
a statement declaring the resolutions adopted by the DPKR invalid,
TASS reported the same day. Explaining its decision, the Secretariat
said that delegates to the founding conference were not chosen
in accordance with CPSU rules and that non-Party members also
participated. The Secretariat also said that forming a party
within a party is a violation of CPSU rules and that CPSU members
are not allowed to hold simultaneous membership in two political
parties. (Dawn Mann)

DEPARTIFICATION DECREE NOW IN FORCE. Yeltsin's July 20 decree
banning formal party activity in state institutions and enterprises
came into force on August 4. RSFSR presidential press secretary
Pavel Voshchanov told Radio Rossii on August 2 that no specific
period of time for the fulfillment of the decree has been specified,
but that Yeltsin expects departification to be essentially complete
by the end of this year. Moscow Party chief and CPSU Politburo
member Yurii Prokof'ev told Vremya on August 3 that although
the Party considers the decree illegal, it will abide by it until
the USSR Committee for Constitutional Oversight has issued its
ruling. Prokof'ev estimates that it will take it about six months
to comply with the decree. Vesti reported August 2 that Prokof'ev
has met with the Party secretaries of Moscow's largest enterprises
and instructed them immediately to arrange with enterprise directors
for the long-term leasing of quarters occupied by Party committees.
TASS reported August 4 that thus far only 10% of the state institutional
and enterprise directors in Leningrad have issued orders to disband
political organizations. (Dawn Mann)

YELTSIN'S DECREE: COMPLIANCE IS ALL RELATIVE. Vesti (August 4)
quoted the Leningrad Oblast' Committee of the CPSU as reporting
that every third head of state-owned enterprises in the region
has requested Party cells to leave the premises of their enterprizes,
as required by Yeltsin's decree on "departification." This is
not a bad result, observed Vesti's commentator Aleksandr Gurnov,
if compared to how they implement Gorbachev's presidential decrees.
(Julia Wishnevsky)

TRANSPORT WORKERS TO STRIKE. Public transport workers in Leningrad
have decided to strike for 24 hours on August 12, according to
a report in Komsomol'skaya pravda of August 2. The paper gave
no details of the workers' demands. Komsomolka also reported
that bus drivers in Ulan Ude, the capital of Buryatia, have gone
on strike in an effort to double their pay and to improve living
and working conditions. (Jean Riollot/Sallie Wise)

ANOTHER PARISH LEAVES MOSCOW PATRIARCHATE'S JURISDICTION. Moskovskie
novosti published in No. 30 an article "Fight for the Temple"
by Aleksandr Nezhnyi. The noted religious publicist defends a
new Orthodox parish in Kuibyshev which left the jurisdiction
of the Moscow Patriarchate and joined the Russian Free Orthodox
Church (under the jurisdiction of the US-based Russian Orthodox
Church Abroad) against a campaign carried out against it not
only by representatives of the Russian Orthodox Church, but also
local authorities. (Oxana Antic)

BURIAL CLOTHES RATIONED. Burial clothes are now the eighteenth
item on the list of rationed goods in Kazan', Radio Mayak reported
on August 2, citing the Postfaktum News Agency. A special new
ration coupon will entitle the bereaved to purchase 15 meters
of cloth, a polythene suit and a shirt or a dress and a headscarf,
a pair of socks or stockings, a pair of shoes, and one handkerchief
for each (newly) deceased. (Keith Bush)

ARMENIAN PARLIAMENT, PAN-NATIONAL MOVEMENT ON UNION TREATY. Western
news agencies quoted an Armenian representative in Moscow as
stating August 3 that the Armenian parliament voted August 2
to debate the Union Treaty in September and to postpone a decision
on signing until after the September 21 referendum on secession.
TASS reported August 4 that a meeting of Armenian Pan-National
Movement deputies argued that Armenia's refusal to participate
either in the March referendum or in the drawing up of the Union
Treaty is corroboration of the republic's commitment to last
August's declaration of sovereignty, and that sovereignty cannot
be achieved "without a certain degree of political confrontation."
(Liz Fuller)

REFERENDUM ON SEMIPALATINSK COMPENSATION. Radio Moscow reported
on August 4 that Kazakhstan's Supreme Soviet has decided to conduct
a referendum among residents of raions near the nuclear testing
site in Semipalatinsk oblast on whether to accept an offer of
five billion rubles in compensation from the Ministry of Defense.
The ministry wants to conduct three more tests at the site. The
chairman of Kazakhstan's anti-nuclear movement, poet Olzhas Suleimenov,
has called on area residents to vote against accepting the offer.
The radio report suggested that the USSR Supreme Soviet should
take a close look at the finances of the Ministry of Defense.
(Bess Brown)

GRAIN PROCUREMENT PRICES RAISED IN KAZAKHSTAN. Vremya on August
2 and Radio Moscow on August 3 reported that the procurement
price of grain has been raised in Kazakhstan. The republic suffered
a severe drought this year, and the government hopes that by
tripling the procurement price for grain delivered above 70%
of the target amount will encourage farms to meet their targets.
This may be a forlorn hope, as the effects of the drought were
very evident, and very serious, by early July. (Bess Brown)

KAZAKHSTAN CONSIDERING PROHIBITION ON EXPORT OF GRAIN. Radio
Moscow, quoting Postfactum, reported on August 2 that Kazakh
Prime Minister Uzakbai Karamanov had said on republican television
that export of grain and fodder from the republic may be prohibited.
This measure presumably is in response to the drought that has
affected the republic. It would be a potentially serious blow
to the USSR economy, as Kazakhstan is a major producer of grain,
most of which is exported to other parts of the USSR. (Bess Brown)


MOLDAVIA ANTICIPATES NEED FOR OWN MILITARY UNITS. Nicolae Chirtoaca,
head of Moldavia's Department for Military Affairs, told Moldovapres
as cited by TASS August 2 that the republic will in the near
future need "militarized formations" to head off terrorism and
threats to the republic from the would-be "Dniester SSR" and
"Gagauz SSR" in eastern and southern Moldavia. Chirtoaca foresaw
difficulties in procuring arms for such units "unless the center
gives them a green light". Chirtoaca's remarks appear to be prompted
by reports on the strengthening of paramilitary units in the
two breakaway areas which are preparing to secede from Moldavia
and remain within the USSR in the event that Moldavia declares
independence. (Vladimir Socor)

MOLDAVIA AND THE RSFSR SIGN CULTURAL AGREEMENT. The Ministers
of Culture of Moldavia and the RSFSR, Ion Ungureanu and Yurii
Solomin, signed August 2 an agreement on cultural cooperation
among the two republics, Russian TV reported the same day. The
agreement provides inter alia for the setting up of cultural
centers and various forms of cultural exchanges to serve the
needs of Russians residing in Moldavia and of Moldavians residing
in the RSFSR. (Vladimir Socor)

MOLDAVIA SPONSORS GAGAUZ CULTURE CELEBRATIONS. The Moldavian
authorities kicked off August 4 in Kishinev the Days of Gagauz
Culture, Moldovapres reported on that date. Gagauz artists, ethnologists,
and folk ensembles from Moldavia and the neighboring Odessa oblast
and guests from Azerbaijan, Soviet Central Asia, and Turkey are
participating. The celebrations are scheduled to move to the
Gagauz-inhabited raions of southern Moldavia in coming days.
(Vladimir Socor)

RALLIES IN ODESSA OBLAST PROTEST ROMANIAN TERRITORIAL CLAIMS.
"Mass rallies" were held August 3 in several raions of Odessa
oblast to protest Romanian territorial claims to that part of
the oblast, Radio Kiev reported that day. The rallies adopted
resolutions expressing "indignation" and terming such claims
"a gross violation of the rights of sovereign Ukraine". It was
the second round of public protests held in Odessa oblast since
the Romanian parliament's adoption June 24 of a strongly-worded
resolution asserting Romania's historic and national right to
Bessarabia, whose southern part now belongs to Odessa oblast.
(Vladimir Socor)


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