|I dream my painting, and then I paint my dreams. - Vincent van Gogh|
No. 126, 05 July 1991
BALTIC STATES NO SEPARATE MFN FOR BALTIC STATES. The US will not exclude the Baltic states from the pending US-Soviet trade agreement, according to an unnamed State Department official cited in an RFE/RL correspondent's report in Washington on July 4. The official said there was no practical way to extend MFN to the USSR without also extending it to the Baltic states, but stressed that this move will not change the longstanding US policy of non-recognition. The US position was articulated last week in Washington to some Baltic representatives, and was also distributed as a non-paper to the foreign ministries in the three Baltic capitals by the US Consul in Leningrad on July 1, according to RFE/RL Estonian Service interviews. (Riina Kionka) SAVISAAR IN SIBERIA. Estonian Prime Minister Edgar Savisaar reportedly traveled to Siberia on July 4 to conclude a series of economic agreements with Siberian towns and oblasts. Savisaar, accompanied by Minister of Material Resources Aleksander Sikkal, was also to have met with local Estonians--most of whom remained in the East after having been deported there in the 1940s--to discuss how best to commemorate the memory of those deportees who died in Siberia. Plans for Savisaar's trip were reported on July 1 by Estonian Radio. (Riina Kionka) PRICE HIKES IN ESTONIA. The cost of food rose again when food prices were fully deregulated July 1, Paevaleht reported the next day. The price hikes did not precipitate protests anywhere in Estonia except for Narva, where the ECP (CPSU platform) Central Committee secretariat adopted a resolution laying the blame for any future social unrest on the Estonian Supreme Council. (Riina Kionka) KRASTINS REFUTES CLAIM OF LATVIAN SUPPORT FOR UNION TREATY. Deputy Chairman of the Latvian Supreme Council Andrejs Krastins told Radio Riga on July 2 that claims made in an article, published in Izvestia of July 1, about Baltic representatives' support for the new USSR Union treaty were unfounded. He noted that there are no representatives of the Republic of Latvia to the USSR Supreme Soviet and that if a deputy from the Latvian SSR to the Soviet legislature has expressed an opinion on the Union treaty, then that is his personal view. Krastins stressed that Latvia is an independent state and, as such, does not intend to endorse the new Union treaty. (Dzintra Bungs) LATVIANS DISAPPOINTED OVER DELAY OF LATVIAN-USSR CONSULTATIONS. Deputy Prime Minister Ilmars Bisers told Diena on July 3 that the Latvian delegation was disappointed about the postponement of the consultations. The Latvians sent a telegram to Moscow asking for official confirmation that the consultations had been postponed. Bisers said that news of the delay came unofficially: Soviet delegation member Valentin Ogorok had spoken about it with the Latvian representation chief Janis Peters. Radio Riga reported on July 4 that Bisers had flown to Moscow to talk with Soviet delegation head Vladimir Velichko about resuming the consultations. (Dzintra Bungs) SOVIET SOLDIERS' ASSOCIATION WARNS LATVIAN GOVERNMENT. Diena reported on July 2 about a statement issued by the coordination center of the Baltic Soldiers' Association claiming that the present government of Latvia is leading the republic to an international crisis and economic collapse. The Soviet soldiers' organization also said that it is concerned about efforts restore "the Fascist regime of Ulmanis" in Latvia and warned: "Those who cherish Fascist ideas [should understand] that for the time being there are still soldiers of the Soviet Army and USSR citizens on Latvia territory." The statement said that all issues related to the presence of Soviet Army and Soviet monuments in Latvia should be dealt with at the governmental level and concluded: "Working people of Latvia, the army is against bloodshed." (Dzintra Bungs) REPLACEMENTS FOR SOVIET GENERALS IN VILNIUS. Moscow Radio reported on July 2 that Colonel Aleksandr Gorkushin will replace Major General Vladimir Uskhopchik as commander of the Soviet military garrison in Vilnius. Colonel Nikolai Mironenko will replace Major General Aleksandr Zhitnikov as the commander of the USSR MVD troops in Lithuania. Mironenko will not be in charge of the OMON troops in Vilnius; they will continue to be under the control of Colonel Nikolai Goncharenko, who is stationed in Riga and heads a group coordinating the work of the OMOM branches in Vilnius and Riga. (Saulius Girnius) LITHUANIA SUPPORTS SLOVENIA'S INDEPENDENCE. On July 3 the Lithuanian Supreme Council adopted a declaration supporting Slovenia's bid for independence, Radio Independent Lithuania reported that day. The Council expressed its solidarity with Slovenia and protested against the armed agression of the Yugoslav military that began on June 27. The parliament of Slovenia had sent an appeal to the Supreme Council that noted that the people of Slovenia were united in their try for independence and were ready to defend their freedom from military aggression. (Saulius Girnius) LITHUANIA DENIES ASKING NORWAY TO PRINT MONEY. In a July 3 news release, the Lithuanian government information bureau denied previous Western reports that Lithuania sought to print its money in Norway. "An agreement to print Lithuanian money was signed in 1990 with foreign companies," the news release said. The terse statement failed to mention where or when the new currency will actually be printed, only emphasizing that the Lithuanian government did not ask Norway to print money. (Gytis Liulevicius) USSR-ALL-UNION TOPICS SHEVARDNADZE QUITS CPSU. Former USSR Foreign Minister Eduard Shevardnadze has resigned from the CPSU, RSFSR television and Western agencies reported July 4. Shevardnadze sent his resignation letter to the CPSU Central Control Commission, which has initiated disciplinary actions against him in connection with his support for the creation of the Movement for Democratic Reforms. In his letter, a copy of which Shevardnadze forwarded to Interfax, he wrote that the Party apparatus' attempt to punish him amounted to a return "to repressive methods of suppressing alternative views." Shevardnadze also said that he knows of a "campaign of slander" being planned against himself and other people who signed the July 1 statement on the creation of the movement. (Vera Tolz) YELTSIN SUPPORTS NEW POLITICAL MOVEMENT. RSFSR President Boris Yeltsin said he would like to see the newly created Movement for Democratic Reforms develop as a party, not as a broad political movement. In an interview with RSFSR TV on July 4, Yeltsin said that those who want to participate in the movement should leave the CPSU. (With Shevarndadze's resignation from the Party, only four of the nine officials who signed the July 1 statement are still members of the CPSU. They are Aleksandr Yakovlev, Arkadii Vol'sky, Aleksandr Rutskoi and Ivan Silaev.) (Vera Tolz) PREPARATIONS FOR GORBACHEV'S LONDON TRIP. With less than two weeks to go until USSR President Mikhail Gorbachev's presentation to the post G-7 summit meeting, the Soviet media carry much conjecture, speculation, and some disinformation about the nature and content of his mission. Presidential advisor Evgenii Primakov told Izvestia July 4 that the president will offer "conceptual propositions," rather than a program. Yet several other reports name, inter alia, Abalkin, Aganbegyan, Martynov, and Ozerelev as members of the team that is furiously working on a synthesis of the Pavlov, Yavlinsky, and Attali draft plans. This synthesis will then be reworked and stamped with Gorbachev's own input. (Keith Bush) PAVLOV DOES HIS THING. At a press conference in Moscow on July 3, USSR Prime Minister Valentin Pavlov stated: "Gorbachev is not working on any program, especially a new program for his trip to London, at least not that I know of...We must fulfill one program first [i.e., his own anticrisis program]. It is high time we stop producing programs and start implementing them." An unnamed Gorbachev aide told The Los Angeles Times of July 4 that Pavlov's pronouncements had surprised and annoyed the president. Referring to the prime minister, this offical said: "We have a loose cannon rolling about. We are either going to have to lash him down or drop him overboard." (Keith Bush) CABINET DISCUSSES BUDGET CRISIS. The USSR Cabinet of Ministers met July 4 to discuss the country's critical financial position and the implementation of the measures agreed upon at the July 2 economic conference. USSR Minister of Finance Vladimir Orlov warned that the total budget deficit could rise to 280-300 billion rubles by the end of the year if present trends continue, Radio Mayak reported July 4. USSR Prime Minister Pavlov noted that enterprises have reduced their production but practically doubled their profits. He claimed to have received a note from the Main Administration for Production of State Badges, Coins, and Orders which stated that unless inflation rates are lowered, it would be unable to print enough money. (Keith Bush) CENTRAL COMMITTEE TO MEET. At a meeting held on July 3, the CPSU Politburo decided to convene a meeting of the Central Committee on July 25. The topic of discussion will be the draft Party program, Radio Moscow reported July 3. The Politburo also issued a resolution stating that delay in the adoption of a new Union treaty would lead to the further destabilization of the country. (Dawn Mann) GORBACHEV BLASTS PARTY CONSERVATIVES. In a speech reported in Pravda July 4, Gorbachev said that if conservatives within the Party continue to "cannibalize" it from within, the Party will "lose all future political battles and elections," The Times and The Guardian reported the same day. Commenting on the various platforms within the CPSU, Gorbachev said that arbitrarily "fixing such labels goes beyond any boundary of Party, civil, or even human morality." (Dawn Mann) "BOLSHEVIK PLATFORM" TO MEET. The "Bolshevik Platform" of the CPSU will hold an all-Union meeting in Minsk on July 14, Radio Rossii reported July 2. The "Bolshevik Platform" seeks Gorbachev's ouster and the repeal of almost all of the reform legislation passed since 1985. Novosti July 2 said the invitation to the meeting, which was sent to members of the newly-formed "Stalin" group (see Daily Report, No. 125), is signed by Nina Andreeva, the leader of Yedinstvo ("Unity"). Andreeva told a Western journalist on July 3 that Yedinstvo has 35,000 supporters but most are afraid to admit it for fear of persecution. She denied Soviet reports that the group wants to leave the CPSU to form the "Party of Bolsheviks and Stalinists," adding, "the central press either hush us up or distort what we say." (Dawn Mann) MARXIST-WORKERS PARTY FORMED. Radio Rossiya reported July 2 that a new Marxist-Workers Party has been formed in 120 cities across the USSR. The party is patterned after the radical Red Guards who enforced the Cultural Revolution in China in the 1960s and early 1970s. According to Radio Rossiya, most of the party's members are young workers who reject market economics as threatening "centralist dictatorship." (Dawn Mann) RADIO ROSSII MORE DANGEROUS THAN RADIO LIBERTY. Speaking at a press conference during a recent visit to Smolensk, the chairman of the USSR State TV and Radio Broadcasting Company, Leonid Kravchenko, sharply attacked the RSFSR media, Kuranty reported July 5. The newspaper of the Moscow city Soviet quoted Kravchenko as saying that he regards Radio Rossii as being "most dangerous." Kravchenko said the stations does more harm to Communist ideology than Radio Liberty or the Voice of America. (Vera Tolz) INDEPENDENT WRITERS' UNION CREATED. Interviewed on Russian television 2 July, Yevgenii Yevtushenko announced the creation of a new writers' union, calling the old one obsolescent. The new union would be completely non-ideological in character, he said, and would accept writers regardless of their political or literary persuasions. It would welcome writers who had been forced to leave the USSR as well as citizens of republics which might decide to leave the USSR in the future. Membership would not be incompatible with membership of the old organization; indeed, Yevtushenko suggested the material base of the new union should be the accumulated funds of the old one. (Sarah Ashwin) GORBACHEV-SALINAS TALKS. Gorbachev and Mexican President Carlos Salinas held talks on July 4 to discuss the creation of a "new economic and political order in the world," TASS reported July 4. Gorbachev stressed the importance of the Soviet Union's dialogue with Mexico and said he hoped to be able to accept Salinas' invitation to visit that Latin American country. According to a subsequent announcement from Carlos Salinas' office in Mexico City, Gorbachev plans to visit Mexico and the date will be set soon. Salinas' office also noted that Yeltsin will also visit the Mexican president. (Suzanne Crow) PVO REFORM REVIEWED. Krasnaya zvezda of June 25 carried a "round-table" discussion on reform in the Air Defense Forces. Included were Army General Ivan Tret'yak, Commander-in-Chief of the PVO, and other top-ranking commanders. The views expressed were uniformly hard-line, and Tret'yak in particular emphasized the rapid technological developments in Western airforces and the critical need for the Soviet PVO to keep pace. Tret'yak and others pointed especially to the Gulf War to support their arguments. They implied the need for greater spending on modernization programs, criticized conversion of defense industries, and rejected calls for eliminating the PVO as a separate service. (Stephen Foye) USSR--IN THE REPUBLICS NAZARBAEV CALLS FOR SUMMIT OF REPUBLICAN LEADERS. Kazakh president Nursultan Nazarbev proposed that the leaders of the fifteen Union republics meet to discuss economic cooperation, Western news agencies reported July 3. Nazarbaev told a news conference that such a summit meeting would have no political implications and that he continues to support the new Union treaty. He also said that he does not support the positions taken by Ukraine and the RSFSR regarding tax revenues forwarded from the republics to the center. (Roman Solchanyk) RSFSR DENATIONALIZATION LAWS. The RSFSR Supreme Soviet passed legislation on July 3 that provided for the denationalization of most of industry, trade, and services, and on July 4 for handing over state housing to tenants, TASS and RIA reported July 3 and 4. The bulk of denationalized state property is to be sold at auctions during the period 1992-95 to RSFSR residents for bonds that will be issued in 1992. Employees of a given enterprise will get a 30% discount on any purchase of its shares. Both of the RSFSR laws appear to be uncoordinated and incompatible with the all-Union legislation already passed or under deliberation. (Keith Bush) YANAEV AND KHASBULATOV PREPARED "NINE PLUS ONE" AGREEMENT. The "nine plus one" agreement signed on April 23, was the result of fruitful cooperation between USSR Vice-President Gennadii Yanaev, and the delegation of the nine republics, RSFSR Supreme Soviet First Deputy Chairman Ruslan Khasbulatov told Russian Television on July 1. Khasbulatov said that key details of the agreement, which some of which surprised Yeltsin supporters, were elaborated by Khasbullatov himself and Yanaev and then presented to the other republics. Khasbulatov also made it clear that he views himself as the natural successor to Yeltsin as the Chairman of the RSFSR Supreme Soviet. (Victor Yasmann) RUTSKOI TO CREATE DEMOCRATIC RUSSIAN CP. On July 4, RSFSR television quoted RSFSR president-elect and leader of the democratic Communists bloc in the RSFSR parliament, Aleksandr Rutskoi as saying that he remains a Communists. Rutskoi said that instead of breaking ties with the CPSU, reformists in the Party should unite and take initiative in this body in their own hands. Rutskoi said that he himself wants to go into this direction and create the Democratic Party of Communists of Russia which will attempt to drive the conservative Russian CP out of the country's political arena. (Vera Tolz) STATE OF EMERGENCY LIFTED IN TWO RAIONS OF AZERBAIJAN. On July 4 Gorbachev exempted Azerbaijan's Dzhebrail and Geranboy raions, from the state of emergency imposed on the NKAO, the Azerbaijani raions adjacent to it, and Armenia's Goris raion on January 15, 1990, on the grounds that the situation there was normalised, Western news agencies reported July 4, quoting TASS. Gorbachev noted assurances given by Azerbaijani president Ayaz Mutalibov that "all measures will be taken to ensure the safety of the people living in the zone of conflict and preclude cases of unlawful settlement of local inhabitants." (Liz Fuller) DEMONSTRATIONS PLANNED FOR KOHL'S VISIT. Rukh is organizing a demonstration in Kiev to protest Gorbachev's meeting with German chancellor Helmut Kohl on the territory of sovereign Ukraine, Radio Liberty's Ukrainian Service learned on July 4. Last week, Supreme Soviet chairman Leonid Kravchuk complained that Ukrainians had not been consulted about whether they wanted to host the Gorbachev-Kohl rendezvous. (Kathy Mihalisko) SHEVARNADZE MOVEMENT GETS COOL RECEPTION IN UKRAINE. So far, the attitude of liberal Ukrainian Communists and noncommunists toward the Democratic Reform movement has been largely negative, according to interviews conducted July 4 for Radio Liberty's Ukrainian service. Mykola Shul'ha, a Central Committee member who heads the Ukrainian Supreme Soviet commission on internationality relations, said the Shevardnadze-Yakovlev initiative has been coolly received, but noted that the Ukrainian Party is itself wracked by internal divisions. A copy of the Shevarnadze platform received in Kiev refers to the USSR as "a union of sovereign peoples"--that is not what Ukrainian democrats want to hear. (Kathy Mihalisko) GERMANY TO SEND TECHNOLOGY AND EQUIPMENT TO UKRAINE. Germany intends to send to the Ukrainian republic technology and equipment from unused army stocks, according to an announcement made July 4 on Deutschlandfunk by a member of the Germany Ministry of Defense. The gift, with an estimated value of DM 21 million ($12.5 million), will include 700 trucks, 70 pieces of light machinery, agricultural technology, and medical equipment. The package is intended to "strengthen Ukraine" and serve the medical needs of people in the Chernobyl' region. The Ministry of Defense said it is ready to prepare the technology and equipment for delivery by mid-August. (Natalie Melnyczuk) UKRAINIANS PROTEST CENTRAL TV PROGRAMMING. Ukrainian people's deputy Roman Lubkivs'kyi raised the question of "Vremya's" tendentious programming on developments in Ukraine, Radio Kiev reported July 4. Lubkivs'kyi proposed to the Supreme Soviet that it prepare a resolution on the subject, that the Ukrainian procurator initiate criminal proceedings against the "Vremya" editors for inflaming inter-ethnic and inter-confessional passions, and that the accreditation in Ukraine of those journalists responsible for "political provocations" be lifted. (Roman Solchanyk) CRIMEA AND THE UNION TREATY. A session of the Supreme Soviet of the Crimean ASSR has approved the draft Union treaty "in the main," Radio Kiev reported July 4. The session affirmed that the Crimean ASSR is a constituent part of Ukraine and delegated the parliament's chairman, Mykola Bahrov, to sign the treaty after taking into consideration proposals from the Crimean and Ukrainian Supreme Soviets. (Roman Solchanyk) UKRAINIAN ANTI-CRISIS PROGRAM PASSED SECOND READING. The Ukrainian Supreme Soviet has adopted Prime Minister Vitold Fokin's anti-crisis program, after minor amendments, Radio Kiev reported July 4. In order to implement the program, some Ukrainian and USSR laws, among them the presidential decree on hard currency taxes on Soviet foreign trade participants, had to be suspended. 70% of Ukraine's hard currency earnings will now go to the republican rather than the all-Union hard currency fund. (Valentyn Moroz) FIRST OFFICIALLY REGISTERED UNEMPLOYED WILL RECEIVE BENEFITS. 6000 people have applied for unemployment benefits in Ukraine since July 1, Radio Kiev reported July 4. Of these, 61 people will receive unemployment benefits. Only 20% of those who applied were people who have been laid off; most of the rest are recently graduated students. (Valentyn Moroz) NO CRIMINAL CASE AGAINST PAZNYAK. The Belorussian Supreme Soviet rejected a request from the office of the republican prosecutor to strip opposition leader Zyanon Paznyak of his deputy's immunity, Radio Moscow reported July 3. Prosecutor Ryhor Tarnauski, a hard-line Communist, wanted to begin a criminal case against Paznyak in connection with an anti-Communist demonstration on November 7. (Kathy Mihalisko) GERMAN NATIONAL RAION FORMED. The Presidium of the RSFSR Supreme Soviet has approved the formation of a German national raion in the Altai Krai, Radio Mayak reported July 4. The new territorial formation will consist of parts of the Slavgorod and Khabarovsk raions. (Roman Solchanyk) [As of 1300 CET]
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