In the effort to give good and comforting answers to the young questioners whom we love, we very often arrive at good and comforting answers for ourselves. - Ruth Goode
RFE/RL Daily Report

No. 125, 03 July 1991



BALTIC STATES



PRINCIPLES OF BALTIC-USSR ECONOMIC COOPERATION. On June 28 the
Baltic Council adopted the "Coordinated principles of Economic
Relations with the USSR." The seven-point document states that
all enterprises--regardless of previous jurisdiction--in Estonia,
Latvia, and Lithuania have to abide by the respective Baltic
laws. The document notes that during the transition period to
independence, Baltic customs services will apply USSR customs
regulations on Soviet goods being transported through Baltic
territory, and the exchange of goods between the USSR and the
Baltics will be based on mutual benefit and general principles
of free trade. The Council also condemned OMON violence in Vilnius
on June 27, Diena reported on July 1. (Dzintra Bungs)

BALTIC-USSR TRADE UNION ACCORD. Diena of July 1 reported that
over the weekend leaders of the free labor union associations
of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania met with leaders of the USSR
Confederation of Trade Unions. Principles of future cooperation
were formulated. The participants also agreed that the property
of the Baltic labor unions would be used for the social welfare
of the people of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. This means that
the USSR organization has recognized that the trade union properties
in the Baltics belong to the Baltic organizations. (Dzintra Bungs)


BALTS AT GENEVA MINORITIES CONFERENCE. Max Kampelman, the head
of the US delegation to the Geneva Minorities Conference, said
that the Baltic delegations would be guests of various coun-tries
on a rotational weekly basis, according to Tomas Remeikis, a
member of the US delegation and the Vice-President of the Lithuanian
American Community (VOA Lithuanian Service, July 2). Kampelman
said that the Scandinavian countries would host the Balts the
first week, and the US would host one of the Baltic delegations
for one week. In their introductory remarks on July 1, the US,
Malta, and Iceland noted that the Balts should be members of
the CSCE process. (Saulius Girnius)

BALTIC-DANISH AGRICULTURAL COOPERATION. Agricultural ministers
of Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, and Denmark signed an agreement
on agricultural cooperation in Riga July 2, TASS reported that
day. The document clears the way for cooperation on several levels:
economic, scientific, and technical exchanges, joint ventures,
barter, and cooperative agricultural production. For effective
realization of the agreement, the ministers decided to draft
more specific treaties between Denmark and the individual Baltic
States. The Latvian Ministry of Agriculture has already concluded
such an agreement. (Gytis Liulevicius)

MORE CRITICISM OF OMON VILNIUS OPERATION. Last week's OMON seizure
of the Vilnius telephone exchange came under more fire as the
USSR Interior Ministry investigated the perpetrators. According
to Izvestia July 2, the head of the Interior Ministry's Administration
for Public Order, Major General Eduard Kalachev, met with the
OMON leaders responsible for the attack. It became clear that
the operation against the telephone exchange was unsanctioned,
Kalachev said. The OMON leaders were warned that disciplinary
action, including dismissal, would be taken against them if unsanctioned
attacks were to continue. Kalachev said he was "staggered" by
the OMON's political immaturity. (Gytis Liulevicius)

VAGNORIUS SENDS TELEGRAM TO SOVIET LEADERS. Lithuanian Prime
Minister Gediminas Vagnorius sent a telegram on July 2 to USSR
President Mikhail Gorbachev, Prime Minister Valentin Pavlov,
and Deputy Prime Minister Vitalii Doguzhiev, Radio Vilnius reported
that day. "The economic situation in the Soviet Union and the
Republic of Lithuania is on the brink of a catastrophe," Vagnorius
warned, citing political instability as aggravating the problem.
The telegram expresses hope that the USSR will agree to the proposed
bilateral treaty on trade and economic cooperation for 1991 and
1992 as a step in normalizing relations between the two countries.
According to Vagnorius, "the complex situation demands that both
sides refrain from hasty decisions which would complicate matters
for the other side." (Gytis Liulevicius)

POLISH RADIO BEGINS LITHUANIAN-LANGUAGE BROADCASTS. The Polish
press agency PAP reported July 2 that the half-hour daily broadcasts
will include world and Polish news, and commentary and reports
on Polish-Lithuanian ties and Poland's Lithuanian minority. The
announcement was an-other sign of increasingly friendly relations
between Poland and Lithuania, which have been closely linked
for centuries. Although Poland has not for-mally recognized Lithuanian
independence, Foreign Minister Krzysztof Skubiszewski said recently
that the aspirations of Lithuania and other Baltic re-publics
"enjoy Polish support." (Christopher Wellisz)

USSR POSTPONES SECOND ROUND OF LATVIAN-USSR CONSULTATIONS. Aris
Jansons, press officer of the Latvian representation in Moscow,
told RFE/RL's Latvian Service today that the second round of
consultations between Latvia and the USSR, scheduled for July
4 and 5 in Moscow, have been postponed at the request of the
Soviet delegation. The Soviet side indicated that it wanted to
coordinate its stance with the Soviet delegations holding consultations
with Estonia and Lithuania, and confer with USSR leaders on the
Baltic issues. Jansons indicated that the second round may be
held in Moscow next week. (Dzintra Bungs)

NEW CHAIRMAN OF LATVIAN CITIZENS CONGRESS. On June 29 the Citizens
Congress convened in Riga for its sixth session and elected Maris
Grinblats as the new chairman of the Committee of Latvia, its
executive body. According to Diena July 1, former chairman Aigars
Jirgens was elected deputy chairman. Grinblats told the press
that while the basic policies of the organization--defending
the rights of the citizens of the independent Republic of Latvia,
and the principle that only the citizens of the independent Republic
of Latvia have the right to determine the future of Latvia--would
not change, he envisaged cooperation with the present Supreme
Council, which was elected by the citizens of the Latvian SSR.
Grinblats is considered to hold more moderate views than his
predecessor. (Dzintra Bungs)


USSR--ALL-UNION TOPICS



THE ECONOMY AT MID-YEAR. Representatives from all of the union-republics
and autonomous republics attended a one-day economic development
conference in Moscow July 2. The event was widely covered by
Radio Moscow, CTV, and Interfax of that date. USSR Prime Minister
Valentin Pavlov repeated his recent assessments that the slump
is stabilizing, with the national income down 11% on mid-1990.
USSR President Mikhail Gorbachev identified the three most critical
areas as: foodstuffs--with the 1991 grain harvest now put at
180-190 million tons; the fuel and power complex; and finances--with
a growing external debt and a budget deficit way above the planned
level. (Keith Bush)

THE WAY AHEAD? Pavlov again offered the choice of three options
out of the present crisis: ano-change variant; his anticrisis
program; or a rapid transition to the market. Gorbachev warned
the assembly that they were all in the soup together and that
no one republic could manage to extricate itself on its own.
On the eve of the G-7 meeting, he reminded them, no Western
nation would have any dealings with them if the stability and
unity of the "single economic area" were not restored. (KeithBush)


NAZARBAEV: THE SEVEN WILL NOT SUBSIDIZE INDIVIDUAL REPUBLICS.
In an interview published in Izvestia July 2, Kazakh president
Nursultan Nazarbaev said the most important thing today is the
Union treaty. The republics could not enter the market without
the Union, he argued, because no "Group of Seven" would subsidize
individual republics. He added that leaders who really wished
their people well should give up politicking and occupy themselves
with the economy. This is not the first time that Nazarbaev has
expressed concern at delay in signing the Union treaty. (Ann
Sheehy)

UNION TREATY AND UNION PROPERTY. In an interview in the issue
of Pravitel'stvennyi vestnik published July 2, Igor' Tsyganenko,
first deputy head of the legal department of the USSR cabinet
of ministers, complains that the latest draft of the Union treaty
does not recognize the existence of Union property. He argues
that unless the Union owns property it will have no credibility
on the world market or as a partner in international agreements.
It is the Union that will have to guarantee the convertibility
of the ruble and bear responsibility for the non-fulfilment of
international agreements. (Ann Sheehy)

"DEMOCRATIC RUSSIA" ON THE UNION TREATY. A draft adopted by a
conference of the council of representatives of "Democratic Russia"
notes with the concern that the 9 + 1 agreement set no date for
the replacement of the unpopular Pavlov cabinet, Novosti reported
July 2. The conference participants also objected to the reference
in the draft Union treaty to special courts in the armed forces,
and the fact that the draft treaty does not spell out how a republic
can secede. They supported Yeltsin's opposition to federal taxes,
and said the old USSR Congress of People's Deputies had no right
to adopt the constitution of the new state.(Ann Sheehy)

IZVESTIA PUBLISHES EXCERPTS FROM STATEMENT OF NINE. More details
are now known about the July 1 statement of nine prominent Soviet
reformers, including Aleksandr Yakovlev and Eduard Shevardnadze,
which called on democratic and reform-oriented forces throughout
the USSR to unite and announced the creation of a new, all-Union
"Movement for Democratic Reform." On July 3, Izvestia published
excerpts from the statement which calls for a return to Soviet
citizens of that which "has been taken away from them." Among
these are land to the peasants. The statement also emphasized
the need for privatization of Soviet economy and demilitarization
of the economy and society. (Vera Tolz)

REACTIONS TO THE STATEMENT. Izvestia also published an article
by Yakovlev, who said the USSR must urgently create an effective
multi-party parliamentary system, because unless the USSR moves
ahead with major reforms, it will retreat into dictatorship and
violence. He criticized the CPSU for not keeping up with the
pace of reforms. Presidential spokesman Vitalii Ignatenko said
Gorbachev considers the creation of the new movement to be a
"positive step," Western agencies reported July 3. The agencies
also quoted Shevardnadze as saying he hopes a real party will
be created on the basis of the movement in September. Leningrad
mayor Anatolii Sobchak told reporters that the movement hopes
to force a meeting of the CPSU Central Committee at which hardliners
will be expelled from the Party. (Vera Tolz)

"NOVOE VREMYA" CALLS FOR RETIREMENT OF KGB CHAIRMAN. USSR KGB
Chairman Vladimir Kryuchkov must either retire voluntarily or
be dismissed by Gorbachev, Novoe Vremya (No.26) argues. Referring
to Kryuchkov's statements in the USSR Supreme Soviet last week,
when Kryuchkov accused the West of masterminding of the economic
destabilization of the USSR, the weekly claimed that such statements
could undermine Gorbachev's position at the upcoming G-7 meeting.
Criticism of the KGB and of Kryuchkov has intensified in the
past two weeks, after a noticeable reduction in the first half
of the year. (Victor Yasmann)

TOP KGB OFFICER SPEAKS OUT. A top KGB officer, writing under
the pen name Vyacheslav Artemov in Moskovskie novosti No. 25,
has said the publications of former KGB officers and journalists
about the present role of the KGB suffer from superficiality
or are pursuing political aims. In particular, he rebuffed the
notion that the KGB played a major role in the preparation of
perestroika. He also noted that the KGB does not have a monopoly
on information and cannot, therefore, disinform the USSR President
or manipulate him. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the military
intelligence bodies, the USSR Academy of Sciences, TASS, and
the Ministry of Foreign Economic Ties as well as other party
and government sources contribute to the information flow to
the top political leadership. (Victor Yasmann)

NEW FIRST DEPUTY CHIEF EDITOR FOR IZVESTIA. On June 28, Interfax
quoted Ivan Laptev, former chief editor of Izvestia and currently
the head of the USSR Supreme Soviet Council of the Union, as
saying that parliamentary chairman Anatolii Luk'yanov had personally
appointed Dmitrii Mamleev, deputy head of the USSR State Committee
on the Press, as first deputy chief editor of Izvestia, in violation
of the law on the press. Laptev said the appointment could only
have been made by the Presidium of the USSR Supreme Soviet, which
is the newspaper's founder. Mamleev replaces Igor' Golembiovsky,
who was very popular with the newspaper's editorial staff: since
February, they had been campaigning to have Golembiovsky appointed
chief editor. (Vera Tolz)

VLADIMIR MOLCHANOV LEAVES CENTRAL TELEVISION. Many popular TV
moderators and commentators have left Central Soviet Tv this
year to protest against attempts by Leonid Kravchenko, the head
of Soviet TV, to reimpose political censorship. The latest one
to quit is Vladimir Molchanov, Radio Rossii reported June 30.
Since 1987, Molchanov has moderated "Do i posle polunochi" ("Before
and After Midnight"), which has been one of the most popular
political TV shows. On June 30, it was broadcast for the last
time. Radio Rossii reported that when Molchanov informed the
leader-ship of Central Television about his intention toleave,
no attempt was made to dissuade him. (Vera Tolz)

LIBERAL-CONSERVATIVE UNION TO BE FOUNDED. TASS reported July
2 that the founding congress of the Liberal-Conservative Union
will be held at the end of September. The initiative for the
union comes from Garry Kasparov and Arkadii Murashov, both of
whom left the Democratic Party of Russia in April. The Union
will have a "traditional conservative orientation in the spirit
of Thatcherism." The Union already claims supporters in 80 cities
across the RSFSR. An organizing committee, rules, and a program
will be drawn up in August; the final name of the new party will
be determined at the congress. (Dawn Mann)

FIRST DUKHOBOR CONGRESS. The London Times July 2 carries a report
from Tselina (near Rostov-on-Don) on the first congress of the
Dukhobors, a religious denomination heavily persecuted under
the tsars and by the Soviet authorities. More than 300 people
attended the congress, which has reunited long-separated families
and friends. A Soviet journalist was quoted as saying that the
Dukhobors have asked for permission for establish communes in
the area but local collective farmers have objected because they
can make more money by renting land to Georgian and Armenian
melon growers. (Oxana Antic)

PATRIARCH URGES MORAL FOUNDATION FOR ECONOMIC REFORM. TASS reported
on June 28 that Patriarch Aleksii II has issued an appeal in
connection with the Day of Soviet Youth. The Patriarch warned
that life will be more difficult than before since "the burden
of freedom is heavy." The Patriarch also noted that in Western
Europe, the market economy was built on strong Protestant and
Catholic moral foundations. The former provided moral and religious
guidance to economic activity, and the latter reminded man that
he was, above all, a child of God. The Patriarch said the Russian
Orthodox Church is prepared to supply moral guidelines, too,
but questioned whether many people were ready to listen. (Oxana
Antic)

SOVIETS REMOVE NUCLEAR WEAPONS FROM GERMANY? The Bild Zeitung
said on June 2 that Soviet troops have sped up the removal of
an estimated 300 nuclear weapons from former East Germany, AP
reported. On June 13 Soviet Foreign Minister Alexander Bessmertynkh
admitted that the Soviet Union still had nuclear weapons in former
East Germany, but said that they would be removed rapidly. Bild
Zeitung reported that the weapons were being withdrawn under
KGB supervision on special, lead-lined Soviet railway cars. ADN,
meanwhile, reported on June 2 that there had been "no official
talks" between the Soviets and the Germans on removing the weapons,
nor had the Soviets requested special transport facilities. (Stephen
Foye)

HOUSING FOR GENERALS IN MOSCOW. The Defense Ministry has long
abused its right to house officers in much sought-after apartments
in Moscow, the chairman of a Moscow city council sub-committee
for housing claimed in Argumenty and fakty (No. 21). He said
that from 1969 to 1985 the Ministry of Defense received some
37,000 apartments in Moscow. In addition, he said, the MOD commonly
transfers senior officers to Moscow just prior to retirement,
so that they have the right--without waiting in line--to housing
in the city when they leave the service. Generals, the official
said, do particularly well; in 1988-1989 over 300 of them received
"enormous" apartments. (Stephen Foye)

GENERAL CRITICIZES MILITARY CONVERSION. The Chief of the Military
Political Directorate of Soviet Space Troops told TASS on June
29 that, as a result of conversion, "the defense industries have
lost significantly more than the civilian economy has gained."
General Igor' Kurin said he was disturbed by deteriorating production
in the military industrial complex, and said that reductions
in defense funding had led to a halt or significant slow-downs
in the work of many research institutes and design bureaus, as
well as negative trends in serial production. With respect to
space-based industries, Kurin encouraged production of "dual
use" items with civilian and military application. (Stephen Foye)


YUGO CRISIS "CLOSE TO HEART." Soviet presidential spokesman,
Vitalii Ignatenko said at a briefing on July 2, the situation
in Yugoslavia is "close to the Soviet Union's heart," TASS reported
that day. Commenting on the election of Stipe Mesic to the post
of Yugoslav president, Ignatenko expressed the hope that it
would help attain stabilization in the country. "The Soviet
Union is prepared for the dynamic development of relations with
Yugoslavia and giving Yugoslavia maximum friendly support," Ignatenko
concluded. (Suzanne Crow)

PRESIDENTS AND PREMIERS COME TO CALL. Over the next month the
Soviet Union will receive four Western leaders: Mexican President
Carlos Salinas de Gortari arrives on July 3, German Chancellor
Helmut Kohl will start a two-day visit on July 5, Spanish Prime
Minister Felipe Gonzalez will visit the USSR from July 8-9, and
Greek Prime Minister Constantine Mitsotakis will make a trip
to the USSR toward the end of July, TASS reported July 2 and
3. These visits are likely to yield pledges for support for Gorbachev's
attempts to reform the Soviet system in the hope of helping Gorbachev
to remain in office. (Suzanne Crow)

KOMPLEKTOV OPTIMISTIC ABOUT SUMMIT AND START. Soviet Ambassador
to the United States Viktor Komplektov expressed optimism in
an interview with the Washington Post (July 3) that a US-Soviet
agreement on strategic arms would be signed at a summit in late
July or early August. "To delay . . . would be a rather unpleasant
thing," Komplektov said. Bush and Gorbachev are scheduled to
meet on July 17 at the end of the G-7 summit. Since the postponement
of the US-Soviet summit (originally scheduled for February and
then informally set for the first half of 1991) the USSR has
been eager to formalize plans for meeting. (Suzanne Crow)

CASTRO SAYS CUBA GETS NOTHING FROM USSR. Cuban President Fidel
Castro said in a speech to chemical and mining engineers on July
2 that Cuba received no raw materials from the Soviet Union during
the first five months of 1991. Cuba also has not received spare
parts for its Soviet-made automobiles and agricultural machinery,
Castrosaid. Moscow has honored its promise to ship 10 million
barrels of crude oil for the year, but that amount is 30% lower
than previous levels. (Suzanne Crow)

IRAQI AMBASSADOR HAILS USSR. In an June 18 interview with Sovetskaya
Rossiya, Iraq's ambassador to the USSR said "Iraq has long-standing
and developed relations with the Soviet Union on all governmental
and societal levels. Now we truly wish to continue and expand
these relations for the sake of the peoples of both our friendly
countries. The Iraqi people will never forget the noble feelings
and principled position of sons of the Soviet people during the
time of crisis." The ambassador's reference to the "sons of the
Soviet people" is unclear, but could refer to the Soviet advisors
who remained in Iraq voluntarily after the outbreak of hostilities.
(Suzanne Crow)


USSR--IN THE REPUBLICS



NEW LENINGRAD CITY COUNCIL CHAIRMAN. After three unsuccessful
rounds of voting, the Leningrad city council finally elected
Aleksandr Belaev, 38, and the former chairman of the council
finance and budget commission, as chairman of the city council,
TASS reported July 2. (Dawn Mann)

"STALIN" MOVEMENT IN MAKHACHKALA. The "Stalin" movement, which
was recently registered by the Dagestan Ministry of Justice,
has over 1,200 members, according to its leader, the director
of the Makhachkala Association of Railway Restaurants, Novosti
reported July 2. The leaders of the movement have accepted an
invitation signed by Nina Andreeva to take part in the all-Union
conference of supporters of the Bolshevik platform in the CPSU
scheduled to take place in Minsk July 13-14. (Ann Sheehy)

NAZARBAEV PLANNING TO VISIT CHINA. Novosti reported July 2 that
Nazarbaev was planning to visit China in the first half of July
to promote business between Kazakhstan and adjacent areas of
China. He also wants to talk about establishing an airline to
link Alma-Ata with eastern and south-eastern Asia. He is scheduled
to visit Beijing and meet with Chinese Communist party leaders
as well. (Ann Sheehy)


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