To appreciate nonsense requires a serious interest in life. - Gelett Burgess
RFE/RL Daily Report

No. 123, 01 July 1991



BALTIC STATES



USSR INTERIOR MINISTRY WARNS OMON IN LITHUANIA. Senior officers
from the OMON troops in Lithuania were summoned to Moscow on
June28, TASS reported June 30. They were warned of "the inadmissibility
of excesses against the population and local authorities" and
told of "the need to coordinate their anti-crime actions and
the guarding prosecutor's office." The warning was considered
by The Los Angeles Times (June 30) to be the clearest indication
so far that the OMON has been acting on its own than at the Kremlin's
bidding. (Saulius Girnius)

SOVIET MILITARY COMMANDER IN VILNIUS TRANSFERRED. Izvestia reported
June 28 that Major General Vladimir Uskhopchik had been transferred
from his post as the commander of the Soviet military garrison
in Vilnius to a post in Brest, Belorussia. He had been due for
a transfer to a post at the General Staff, but declined the offer
in order to be near his ailing parents. Izvestia also reported
that Major General Aleksandr Zhitnikov, who is responsible for
the MVD OMON troops in Lithuania, might be transferred because
he is old and has already served a long time in Vilnius. (Saulius
Girnius)

BALTIC COUNCIL MEETING. The Baltic Council, a consultative body
of the leaders of Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia, met in Jurmala
on June 28, Radio Independent Lithuania reported that day. The
Council adopted coordinated principles for economic relations
between the Baltic States and the USSR, to be based on "mutual
benefit and the general principles of free trade." The document
emphasizes that "all economic facilities on the territories of
the Baltic States will be under the jurisdiction of these states."
The Council also reacted to the OMON actions in Vilnius last
week, condemning the assault on the central telephone exchange
as "another link in the chain of armed incidents, the aim of
which is the aggravation of tension in the Baltic States." (Gytis
Liulevicius)

SECOND CONFERENCE OF THE FUTURE OF LITHUANIA FORUM. The Future
of Lithuania Forum held its second conference in Vilnius on June
29, Radio Independent Lithuania reported that day. The Forum,
an ostensibly non-partisan opposition organization, criticized
a variety of Lithuanian government policies, especially the current
economic reforms--privatization return of property to original
owners. The Lithuanian parliament also came under criticism for
its rightist majority, its "radical representatives' intolerance
of opposition." Speakers at the conference repeatedly emphasized
that "opposition constitutes the guarantor of state democracy."
(Gytis Liulevicius)

SAJUDIS COUNCIL CONFERENCE. Radio Independent Lithuania reported
on June 29 that the Sajudis parliament council met that day in
Vilnius. Parliament deputies Zita Slicyte, Virgilijus Cepaitis,
Kazimieras Motieka, Romualdas Ozolas, Ceslovas Stankevicius,
Aloyzas Sakalas, who were elected with the support of Sajudis,
spoke at the meeting. Sajudis chairman Juozas Tumelis gave a
report about the political situation in Lithuania, but the meeting
also paid great attention to efforts to revitalize Sajudis. It
was decided to revive some Sajudis newspapers in the raions,
establish a Sajudis daily newspaper, and register the Sajudis
Information Agency, which will focus its attention on collecting
information from Lithuania. Saulius Girnius)

BUNDESTAG GROUP PROTEST. The newly formed Bundestag German-Baltic
Friendship Circle sent a letter of protest to Vladislav Terekhov,
Soviet ambassador to Germany, an RFE/RL correspondent in Bonn
reported June 28. The letter, written by the group's Christian
Democrat chairman and Social Democratic and Free Democratic deputy
chairmen, protested USSR attacks on facilities in Lithuania,
warning against any further use of force. 100 Bundestag deputies
signed the letter, which criticized Soviet violence as incompatible
with "the concept of European reconciliation, openness, and freedom."
(Gytis Liulevicius)

LANGUAGE REFORM IN LATVIAN SCHOOLS. The Latvian Supreme Council
adopted a new law on education, TASS reported June 30. The legislation
will replace Russian with Latvian as the primary language in
institutions of higher learning, beginning in the second year
of instruction. According to the TASS report, "teaching . . .
in the Russian language will be highly problematical." Latvian
parliament chairman Anatolijs Gorbunovs has opposed the law,
maintaining that "such obstacles may exacerbate the situation
in the republic," and might undermine non-Latvians' confidence
in the government. (Gytis Liulevicius)

HONESTY--THE BEST POLICY? Estonia's chief negotiator for talks
with Moscow, Ulo Nugis, says "the Soviet Union has no desire
to conduct honest talks" with Estonia and that there has been
"a marked deterioration in the Soviet attitude toward Estonia."
According to Baltfax, reporting on June28 (the day after the
teams met in Moscow), Nugis said Soviet negotiators had not prepared
any basic documents for the meeting, as they had been mandated
to do at the previous meeting in April. Instead, they criticized
Estonia's proposals, Nugis said. The two sides were to have discussed
property rights and social guarantees for non-Estonians, but
failed to compromise even on such matters as recognizing each
other's university and college diplomas. (Riina Kionka)



USSR--ALL-UNION TOPICS



OVER 20 MILLION KGB AGENTS IN USSR. There are more than 20 million
citizens who cooperate with the KGB by working as secret informers,
"trustees," providers of "safe houses," and in other capacities,
retired KGB Lieutenant Colonel Valetin Korolev told Russian Television
on June 30. The former chief of the KGB station in Denmark, Mikhail
Lubimov, said he respects KGB agents who cooperate with the organization
for patriotic reasons but added that the Soviet system has also
encouraged those who are trying to enhance their social status
by seeking the patronage of the KGB. Both officers called for
reform of the KGB and sharply criticized Chairman Vladimir Kryuchkov
and the new law on state security organs. (Victor Yasmann)

PRIVATIZATION BILL PARTLY APPROVED. After what was described
as a "heated debate," the USSR Supreme Soviet approved in principle
on June 28 a bill on the privatization of state enterprises,
TASS reported that day. The law provides for the creation of
a ministry of privatization. While it stipulates that "all enterprises
in the country may be privatized," the law excludes certain strategic
sectors. The state will relinquish direct control over 40-50%
of its enterprises by the end of 1992 and 60-70% by 1995. About
half of the draft's articles were approved, but not those covering
how enterprises will be transferred into the private sector and
their future status. Debate on the bill is to continue this week.
(Keith Bush)

THE AGE OF UNEMPLOYMENT DAWNS (OFFICIALLY). As of July 1, 1991,
the existence of unemployment is officially acknowledged in the
USSR. Registration of unemployed workers is scheduled to begin
today, and unemployment benefits will also be paid starting today,
Radio Moscow and Western agencies reported June 30. Estimates
of the current number out of work range from 2 million to 10
million and higher. Unemployment benefits and the conditions
under which these are to be paid appear to vary between republics.
(Keith Bush)

CONSTITUTIONAL OVERSIGHT COMMITTEE TO EXAMINE DRAFT UNION TREATY.
The chairman of the USSR Constitutional Oversight Committee Sergei
Alekseev told a press conference on June 28 that the committee
would be examining the draft Union treaty at the request of the
USSR Supreme Soviet, TASS reported June 28. The com-mittee will
present its findings on the legal aspects of the draft in the
first ten days of July. Judging by some of the inconsistencies
in the draft, its findings could be fairly critical. (Ann Sheehy)


YAKOVLEV SAYS HE IS TARGET OF PARTY INVESTIGATION. Presidential
advisor Aleksandr Yakovlev said he is under investigation by
the CPSU Central Control Commission. Rabochaya tribuna quoted
Yakovlev on June 29 as saying he had been informed that the commission
intends to investigate his "social and political activity and
even to expel [him] from the Party." In his statement, Yakovlev
complained that the Party press, especially Sovetskaya Rossiya,
demonstrates "brutal rage" towards him. Rabochaya tribuna quoted
Yakovlev as saying he reserved the right to decide whether to
resign from the CPSU, but denied having made statements to the
media about his forthcoming resignation from the Party. (Vera
Tolz)

REFORMERS HOLD MEETING ON POSSIBLE NEW PARTY. Soviet reformers
held another closed-door meeting in Moscow on June 29 to discuss
the creation of a new democratic party to rival the CPSU, Interfax
reported. The agency said Eduard Shevardnadze, Vadim Bakatin,
Aleksandr Yakovlev, and Gavriil Popov were among those attending.
Interfax said the participants discussed the necessity for such
a party, as well as its possible structure and date of formation.
On June28, Interfax quoted Shevardnadze as saying a strong all-Union
democratic organization was necessary to overcome the country's
crisis and to prevent a relapse into totalitarianism. (Vera Tolz)


ORTHODOX COMMUNISTS OPEN CONGRESS IN MOSCOW. A two-day congress
of the "Communist Initiative" Movement--an organization of orthodox
Communists from across the USSR--opened in Moscow on June 29.
TASS said more than 800 delegates attended. "TSN" quoted speakers
who accused Gorbachev and Yakovlev of being "puppets of Washington."
The movement called for holding an extraordinary congress of
the CPSU before the end of the year. (Vera Tolz)

HARDLINE CPSU SECRETARIES DEMAND OUSTER OF GORBACHEV AND POLOZKOV.
Thirty-two regional Party leaders in Siberia have demanded that
Gorbachev and RSFSR Communist Party chief Ivan Polozkov be removed
from office, TASS and Russian Television reported June 28. Gorbachev
was attacked for having led the Party away from socialism, while
Polozkov was criticized for weakness. "The course of the radical
renewal of socialism has been replaced by a slide into capitalism,"
according to a declaration signed by 11 Party committee first
secretaries and "leadership of the Party and the country is being
carried out by a narrow group of people who are ignoring the
constitution and laws of the USSR" (Nezavisimaya gazeta June
28). (Dawn Mann)

REPRESENTATIVES OF CPSU PLATFORMS MEET. Representatives of 3
platforms in the CPSU were invited to the Central Committee for
a meeting, "Vremya" reported June 28. Those attending represented
the ultra-conservative "Communist Initiative" Movement; the Marxist
Platform (of "moderate conservatives"); and the Democratic Movement
of Communists (a part of the reformist Democratic Platform in
the CPSU that remained in the Party after the platform's radical
representatives broke with the CPSU and formed the Republican
Party of Russia.) "Vremya" reported that speakers at the meeting
expressed concern over activities of some members and groups
in the CPSU aimed at splitting the Party; the speakers also said
the CPSU leadership should develop a sound policy to preserve
the organization's unity. (Vera Tolz)

REPUBLICAN PARTY OF RUSSIA SPLITS. The second congress of the
Republican Party of Russia opened in Moscow June 29, TASS reported.
(The party was created in November, 1990, by radical members
of the Democratic Platform in the CPSU.) Speaking at the congress,
Moscow mayor Gavriil Popov called for the creation of the all-Union
democratic party in opposition to the CPSU that will unite reformist
forces throughout the country. Despite the call for unity, however,
the congress of the Republican Party ended with a split in its
ranks. "TSN" reported June 30 that a group of delegates announced
its break with the Republican Party and the creation of a more
leftist (socialist) organization. (Vera Tolz)

COMMENTARY ON GORBACHEV MILITARY UKAZ. Izvestia of June 28 carried
an analysis of Gorbachev's June 22 decree on military councils,
Radio Moscow (M-2) reported. According to the commentator, the
decree is important because it subordinates the military councils
to the President rather than to the CPSU Central Committee, as
had been the case in the past. It also proves, the commentator
argued, that Gorbachev has not lost control of the army; he says
that the decree will further strengthen the President's influence
within the armed forces. (Stephen Foye)

GENERAL CRITICIZES MILITARY CONVERSION. The Chief of the Military
Political Directorate of Soviet Space Troops told TASS on June
29 that, as a result of conversion, "the defense industries have
lost significantly more than the civilian economy has gained."
General Igor' Kurin said he was dis-turbed by deteriorating production
in the militaryin-dustrial complex, and said that reductions
in defense funding had led to a halt or significant slow-downs
in the work of many research institutes and design bureaus, as
well as negative trends in serial pro-duction. With respect to
space-based industries, Kurin encouraged production of "dual
use" items with civilian and military application. (Stephen Foye)




USSR--IN THE REPUBLICS



RSFSR OBJECTS TO NEW CUSTOMS REGULATIONS. The RSFSR government
has written to the central authorities expressing "resolute disagreement"
with the adoption of new union customs regulations, RSFSR Prime
Minister Ivan Silayev told APN June 27. The new regulations were
scheduled to come into force on July 1. Some of the sharply increased
duties have already provoked protests (e.g., CTV, June 24). The
RSFSR had nothing to do with the adoption of the new regulations
and therefore reserves the right to take decisive actions to
revoke them, Silayev warns. (Keith Bush)

CREATION OF NEW RUSSIAN TV COMPANY PROPOSED. The chairman of
the USSR Journalists' Union, Eduard Sagalaev, announced his intention
to set up his own television company. The leading TV journalists,
who earlier this year left Central Soviet Television, Vladimir
Pozner and Aleksandr Lyubimov, will take part in its creation,
according to Rabochaya tribuna June 29. Western TV companies,
including CNN, have promised to help Sagaldaev on condition that
the new company is private and receives a broadcasting license.
(Vera Tolz)

UKRAINIAN ANTI-CRISIS PROGRAM AN-NOUNCED. On June 28 the Ukrainian
Supreme Soviet adopted Ukrainian Cabinet of Ministers' chairman
Vitold Fokin's anti-crisis program, Radio reported June 29. Over
the next 2 years, the government proposes to introduce a ruble
stamped with a "U" for use in the republic only; abolish taxes
for medical and food-processing enterprises; privatize small
enterprises in the service, consumer goods, food-processing sectors,
and unprofitable collective farms; lay off 30% of managers at
state-owned firms; freeze construction on around 200 major industrial
sites; abolish administrative controls on salaries; raise pensions,
and to introduce income indexation. Ukrinform-TASS reported June
28 that the government intends to "stabilize" the Ukrainian economy
first and start privatization later on. Stabilization will be
carried out with administrative measures such as stiff fines
on enterprises that break state contracts. Many features of the
program are in conflict with Soviet laws and central government's
anti-crisis program, Fokin said during the presentation of his
plan. (Valentyn Moroz)

UKRAINIAN "U" RUBLES. Fokin said Soviet rubles stamped with a
"U" will be issued to replace the coupons now in use as an interim
Ukrainian currency. Mikhail Khvaiko, the deputy chief of the
Ukrainian Supreme Soviet economic commission, said one batch
of "U" rubles has already been confiscated by central authorities.
Travelers will be able to convert "U" rubles into regular rubles.
Fokin did not say when the "U" rubles would be issued. (Dawn
Mann)

FIRE IN DONBASS KILLS 31. A fire broke out at the Yuzhno-Donbasskaya
mine on June 30, killing 31 miners, TASS reported that day. The
fire is still burning 335 meters below ground and concern that
large amounts of methane gas underground could explode are increasing.
Clouds of poisonous gas have been released into the air, and
an electric sub-station is threatened. The fire started on a
conveyor belt used to bring coal to the surface. (Dawn Mann)


ARMENIAN SUPREME SOVIET CHAIRMAN'S FAMILY ATTACKED. TASS reported
June 30 that the family and bodyguards of Armenian Supreme Soviet
chairman Levon Ter-Petrossyan were attacked on June 29 by "hooligans"
while travelling by car from Lake Sevan to Erevan. Four construction
workers have been arrested in connection with the incident. (Liz
Fuller)

COST OF BEING DEPORTED FROM NKAO IS 500 RUBLES. Interfax reported
June 29 that Armenians are being charged 500 rubles per head
for the dubious privilege of being deported by military helicopter
from Nagorno-Karabakh to Armenia. More than 3,000 Armenians were
reportedly deported from the NKAO and from Khanlar raion during
the first half of May. (Liz Fuller)

DEMOCRATIC PARTY OF UKRAINE REGISTERED. The Ukrainian Ministry
of Justice has registered the Democratic Party of Ukraine (DemPU),
Radio Kiev reported June 29. The DemPU, which held its constituent
congress last December, is the fourth political party in Ukraine
to be officially registered. (Roman Solchanyk)

LENIN BOWS OUT BEFORE STEPHEN THE GREAT. On June 28, the giant
Lenin monument was removed from Kishinev's central square. The
removal, which was officially decided in August 1990, was delayed
by communist and military opposition. Special troops detailed
to the square last week to prevent the removal (see Daily Report,
June 26 and 27) withdrew following assurances that the monument
will remain accessible at a new location on the grounds of an
industrial fair. A monument to Moldavia's medieval prince Stephen
the Great, which was removed decades ago by the Soviet authorities,
is now once again the focal point of the square. Kishinev has
announced plans to build a pantheon to Moldavian national figures
alongside the Stephen monument. (Vladimir Socor)

SOVIET SPOKESMAN ON THE STATUS OF MOLDAVIA. Following the same
line as Alexandrov, USSR Foreign Ministry spokesman Vitaly Churkin
said at a briefing in Moscow that the Nazi-Soviet pact was invalidated
by Germany's attack on the USSR but "the Soviet-Romanian border
has been determined by the results of World War II, the peace
treaty, and all-European documents." "Therefore any discussion
of the pact can only have a purely theoretical character. Moldavia
remains one of the USSR's Union republics, and any problems that
emerge can only be solved between Moldavia and the center," Churkin
said, as cited by TASS and Radio Bucharest June 27. (Vladimir
Socor)

STATE OF EMERGENCY LIFTED IN DUSHANBE. The Tadzhiikistan Supreme
Soviet lifted the 16-month old state of emergency in the capital
Dushanbe on June 29, TASS reported the same day. The state of
emergency was introduced when mass disorders took place on January
12, 1990. (Ann Sheehy)

NEW KGB CHAIRMAN IN TAJIKISTAN. The somewhat controversial Vladimir
Petkel' has been replaced as chairman of the Tajik KGB by 55-year-old
Major-General Anatolii Stroikin, TASS reported June 28. It is
noteworthy that even in this day and age of republican sovereignty
a Slav has once again been appointed to this post. TASS said
that Stroikin, who was previously head of one of the oblast organizations
of the KGB in Kazakhstan, had been proposed for the post by the
Tajik president Kakhar Makhkamov. (Ann Sheehy)

ADIGEI AUTONOMOUS OBLAST TO BE A REPUBLIC? The Adigei Autonomous
Oblast soviet was to adopt a declaration of state sovereignty
on June 28 proclaiming the territory a Soviet Socialist Republic,
Radio Moscow reported the same day. The declaration said that
the decision was being forced on deputies by the inconsistent
line of the USSR and RSFSR supreme soviets in carrying out intended
transformation of the national-state structure of the RSFSR and
the USSR. Radio "Mayak" had reported June 26 that the RSFSR Supreme
Soviet was to discuss a decree turning the Adigei, Gorno-Altai,
Karachai-Cherkess, and Khakass autonomous oblasts into republics,
but there has been no report of the discussion taking place.
(Ann Sheehy)

CRIMEAN TATAR CONGRESS DECLARES SOVEREIGNTY. Delegates at a kurultai--all-Union
congress of the Crimean Tatar people in Simferopol' adopted by
an overwhelming majority a "Declaration on the Sovereignty of
the Crimean Tatar People" which proclaimed the Crimea the national
territory of the Crimean Tatar people, on which it alone has
the right to self-determination, TASS reported June 28. It says
the Crimean Tatars will work for the creation of a sovereign
national state. The kurultai also set up a Crimean Tatar executive
body, the mejlis, of which Mustafa Jemilev, the former leading
Crimean Tatar dissident, was elected chairman. (Ann Sheehy)


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