I'm going to turn on the light, and we'll be two people in a room looking at each other and wondering why on earth we were afraid of the dark. - Gale Wilhelm
RFE/RL Daily Report

No. 111, 13 June 1991



BALTIC STATES



SOCIALIST INTERNATIONAL: CSCE SHOULD EXAMINE BALTIC QUESTION.
In a statement adopted June 12 in Istanbul, the Socialist International
said that it "supports peaceful change for democracy in the Baltic
Republics and the transition from a command system to a free
and open economy; recognizes the rights of the Baltic peoples
to full self-determination; recognizes the Baltic question as
being of an international magnitude that should be dealt with
under the auspices of the CSCE process." SI president Willy Brandt
announced that the SI council had granted full membership to
the Latvian Social Democratic Workers Party. The delay in the
admission, anticipated earlier, was caused by an internal split
in the party in January which has been resolved, according to
an RFE/RL Latvian Service report of June 12. (Dzintra Bungs)


BAKER: SUMMIT NOT LINKED TO BALTIC INDEPENDENCE. US Secretary
of State James Baker spoke to the Senate Appropriations Subcommittee
on June 12 about US aid to the Soviet Union. Asked about US policy
toward the Baltic States, Baker said: "The question of the independence
of the Baltic States is very important to us, but it does not
and will not preclude" an agreement to hold a summit conference
between US President George Bush and USSR President Mikhail Gorbachev.
Baker added, according to a RFE/RL correspondent's report from
Washington of June 12, that the US has never accepted and will
never accept the Soviet annexation of the Baltic States and continues
to urge Moscow to resolve the independence issue through peaceful
dialogue with Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. (Dzintra Bungs)


ESTONIA WANTS MFN. Estonia's Foreign Minister Lennart Meri has
called on the US to grant Estonia most favored nation trade status,
according to an RFE/RL correspondent in Washington on June 12.
Meri says that if the US grants MFN status to the Soviet Union,
it must do the same for Estonia in order not to risk making its
Baltic policy counterproductive and against Estonian national
interests. Meri also noted that Estonia has had a MFN treaty
with the US since 1925, and still considers that treaty to be
in force. (Riina Kionka)

LITHUANIAN-BELORUSSIAN COOPERATION TREATY. On June 12, Lithuanian
and Belorussian Ministers of Internal Affairs Marijonas Misukionis
and Vladimir Yegorov signed a treaty of cooperation in Vilnius,
Radio Independent Lithuania reported that day. In a radio interview
Misiukonis noted that the treaty was "a step which consolidates
the sovereignty of both countries," citing the clause that declared:
"coordinated activity will be placed on the recognition of the
statehood of Lithuania and Belorussia." A similar cooperation
treaty with the RSFSR MVD should be signed soon. A protocol of
principles and directions of cooperation with the USSR MVD was
signed this spring, which could serve as the basis for a future
treaty. (Saulius Girnius)

LITHUANIAN DEPUTY FOREIGN MINISTER ON MOSCOW MEETINGS. In a speech
to the Lithuanian parliament today (June 13), broadcast live
by Radio Independent Lithuania, Lithuanian Deputy Foreign Minister
Valdemaras Katkus reported on his talks with the Soviet Foreign
Ministry on June 11. Katkus met with USSR Deputy Foreign Minister
Valentin Nikiforov and Soviet CSCE delegation leader Yurii Deryabin.
Katkus briefed the Lithuanian parliament on the USSR Foreign
Ministry's official position on Lithuania, explaining that the
USSR still considers Lithuania to be part of the Soviet Union,
and that secession can only be achieved by following the Soviet
constitution. During the meeting, Nikiforov raised doubts as
to whether a majority of Lithuanians in fact support the republic's
independence drive. Katkus told the parliament that the USSR
would view Lithuanian participation at next week's CSCE foreign
ministers' Berlin meeting as guests of another country as "politically
incorrect." (Gytis Liulevicius)

AUSTRIAN DELEGATION IN VILNIUS. On June 12 Radio Vilnius reported
that parliamentarians from the four major Austrian political
parties (Freedom, Socialist, People's, and Greens) had arrived
in Vilnius on June 11. The delegation, headed by one of Austria's
parliament leaders, Heidi Schmidt, met with members of the Polish
faction in the Lithuanian Supreme Council on June 11 and members
of other factions on June 12. That day they also held talks with
parliament chairman Vytautas Landsbergis. He told them about
the political situation in Lithuania and stressed that relations
between the USSR and Lithuania can only be decided in inter-state
negotiations. The Austrians came from Riga where they spent two
days meeting with high-ranking Latvian government and political
party leaders. (Saulius Girnius)

LATVIANS REMEMBER 1941 DEPORTATION VICTIMS. This week commemorative
events are being held throughout Latvia to honor the hundreds
of thousands of people deported on June 14, 1941 and later to
remote regions of the Soviet Union, where most of them perished.
Today (June 13) a scholarly conference started in Riga on the
consequences of Communist totalitarian policies in Latvia. Dr.
Uldis Germanis from Sweden this morning delivered an historical
analysis of the processes leading up to the 1941 deportations,
which was carried live by Radio Riga. Because of his witty commentary
on the Soviet press, Germanis has been considered persona non
grata by the Soviet regime. (Dzintra Bungs)

LATVIA TO TRADE WITH SOUTH AFRICA? Latvia and the Republic of
South Africa have agreed to develop economic relations and start
consultations on the possible exchange of governmental and parliamentary
delegations, reported Radio Riga and Interfax on June 7. South
Africa is interested in obtaining timber from Latvia and the
extension of the Riga-Tel Aviv flight to South Africa. In return,
Latvia has been offered agricultural equipment and help in establishing
a clinic in Riga. (Dzintra Bungs)


USSR - ALL-UNION TOPICS


KOHL SCHEDULED FOR USSR VISIT. German government spokesman Dieter
Vogel said on June 12 Chancellor Helmut Kohl will travel to the
Soviet Union before the G-7 summit. A place and date have yet
to be determined, Western agencies reported June 12. The scheduling
of the meeting suggests that Germany is willing to hear Gorbachev's
appeal for aid from the G-7 countries and perhaps even to lobby
on Gorbachev's behalf. (Suzanne Crow)

BESSMERTNYKH IN BONN. Foreign Minister Aleksandr Bessmertnykh
began his two-day visit to Bonn on June 12 and held meetings
with German Foreign Minister Hans-Dietrich Genscher and Helmut
Kohl, Western agencies reported the same day. Bessmertnykh is
expected to tour the city of Cologne today and hold a news conference
before returning to the USSR. (Suzanne Crow)

YELTSIN SAYS "NO" TO RETURN OF KURILES. RSFSR Supreme Soviet
Chairman Boris Yeltsin said on June 12 that "reconsidering the
borders now is out of the question. It would be blood again,"
when asked about Japan's demand for the return of the four Kurile
Islands, Western agencies reported June 12. Yeltsin's comments
contrast with his previous statements. Prior to and during Gorbachev's
April visit to Japan, Yeltsin stressed that the RSFSR (the republic
of which the islands are a part) must play a part in any negotiations
over the islands return. Yeltsin's most recent statements suggest
he is now less interested in asserting his authority alongside
Gorbachev and more interested in expressing a statesmanlike and
patriotic position on the islands dispute. (Suzanne Crow)

NO DECISION FROM JAPAN ON ISLANDS TRAVEL. Two months after Gorbachev's
offer of visa-free travel for Japanese citizens to the disputed
Kurile Islands, Japan still has not decided whether to accept
the offer. Japan is concerned that travel would lead to investment
by Japanese citizens on the islands. This, in the case of the
return of the islands to Japanese control, would mean complicated
legal disputes over ownership of property between former Japanese
residents and current Japanese investors, Western agencies reported
June 11. (Suzanne Crow)

SOUTH AFRICA MISSION TO OPEN? The Soviet Union has taken a one-year
lease on a house in Pretoria, suggesting a step toward establishing
diplomatic relations. The house will be occupied by two Soviet
diplomats in Pretoria for use as housing and office space. The
action was confirmed on June 10 by the head of the Soviet interest
section in Pretoria, Aleksei Makarov. Makarov denied reports
that Moscow had purchased a mansion in Pretoria for housing 30
Soviet families. Consular ties between the USSR and South Africa
were severed in 1956. Over the last year they have sought to
Moscow and Pretoria missions in February. (NCA/Suzanne Crow)


CPSU ORDERS PROBE OF SHEVARDNADZE. The CPSU yesterday ordered
an investigation of former Foreign Minister Eduard Shevardnadze
in response to his call June 10 for a broad-based democratic
party in the USSR (see Daily Report, June 11), TASS and Western
agencies reported June 12. TASS said the decree was issued by
the presidium of the CPSU Central Control Commission, and that
the results of the Party investigation will be reviewed by that
body. Shevardnadze told reporters in Vienna yesterday that he
had expected such a reaction from the Party and said, "Let them
inquire. I have the right to state my opinions....I'm not afraid
of investigations," Western agencies reported June 12. He did
not say whether he would resign from the CPSU. (Sallie Wise)


OIL AND GAS WORKERS TO GET PAY INCREASE. Soviet Prime Minister
Valentin Pavlov, caving in yet again to demands for pay raises,
agreed to boost the pay of Soviet oil and gas workers by 40%,
back dated to June 1. The Financial Times June 12 added that
the pay increase is gradually to grow to 75% by the fourth quarter,
and is to be accompanied by large investments in the oil and
gas industries' infrastructure. The primary effect of the pay
increases will be to fuel inflationary pressures already out
of control in many parts of the country. The government has the
legal tools to prohibit strikes like the one threatened by the
oil and gas workers, but apparently does not have the will or
the real authority to use them. (John Tedstrom)

ANOTHER ATTACK ON THE CHEVRON PROJECT. Nezavisimaya gazeta of
June 4 has joined in the criticism of the Chevron project at
the Tengiz oilfield that was initiated by Moscow News. The article,
as cited by Interfax June 4, complains that the "outrageously
high profitability" of the joint venture may reach "astronomical
levels." It goes on to state that "Chevron's annual net profits
are estimated at 28%." (This is healthy but hardly exorbitant,
and has nothing whatsoever to do with the Tengiz project). (Keith
Bush)

CHERNAVIN: JUNE, 1941 AND TODAY. Anticipating the June 22 anniversary
of the German attack on the USSR, the Soviet Naval Commander-in-Chief
told TASS on June 12 that there were ominous parallels between
that period and the present. Admiral Vladimir Chernavin said
that the Soviet people had paid dearly for their boundless faith
in the political leadership in the months leading up to the German
attack. He argued that, in a similar fashion, the Soviet people
today have put their faith in the leadership's policy of attempting
to provide national security through political means alone. Chernavin
warned that military force is also an instrument of policy, and
that the armed forces must be kept strong. (Stephen Foye)

MOISEEV ON MILITARY REFORM. General Staff Chief Mikhail Moiseev
warned in the June 12 Krasnaya zvezda that sharp reductions in
military production could undermine the USSR's ability to resume
production in the event of war. He also made the obligatory,
if inaccurate, claim that the US has increased military spending
and done little to cut military personnel. Moiseev confirmed
that the High Command envisions an armed force of 3 to 3.2 million
men, and claimed that the proportion of professionals has already
risen to 43%. He said that the draft military reform plan had
been examined by the USSR Cabinet of Ministers on June 11, and
that it was now in the hands of the president and the Supreme
Soviet. His comments were summarized by TASS on June 12. (Stephen
Foye)

IZVESTIA JOURNALISTS PLAN TO LEAVE. Up to thirty journalists
are planning to quit their jobs at the government newspaper,
Izvestia, Russian television reported June 11. The television
said this would be a logical end to the conflict between the
newspaper's staff and its founder, the USSR Supreme Soviet presidium,
and also between the staff and the newspaper's chief editor Nikolai
Efimov. The conflict began in February when the staff resisted
Efimov's appointment. Now the staff is protesting the appointment
of Vladimir Sevruk as chief editor of Nedelya, the weekly supplement
to Izvestia. The appointment was made without the agreement of
the working staff of Izvestia, which is contrary to the press
law. Sevruk headed the CPSU CC propaganda department in the Brezhnev
period. (Vera Tolz)

US MOVIE STUDIOS PROTEST ILLEGAL COPYING IN USSR. Major US film
studios said they will no longer license movies for viewing in
the USSR to protest illegal showings of their films, Western
agencies and Radio Moscow reported June 12. A US movie industry
executive, Jack Valenti, has demanded that the USSR enforce existing
copyright laws. The studios complain that videocassettes of their
movies are illegally copied and shown to paying audiences in
the USSR. The studios receive no reimbursement for such showings.
A press spokesman at the Soviet embassy in Washington said the
Soviet government does not want private entrepreneurs to violate
international copyright agreements. But he said whenever the
government tries to shut down such viewings, it is accused of
repressing cultural freedoms. In fact, the official Soviet cinema
industry has also violated copyright laws by making illegal copies
of Western films. (Vera Tolz)

SOVIET-AMERICAN GLOBAL TELECOMMUNICATIONS PROJECT. The Lockheed
and Motorola corporations have opened negotiations in Moscow
with the USSR Ministry of Communications on Soviet participation
in the global television project "Iridium," IAN reported June
7. The project calls for creating a world telecommunications
network consisting of 77 satellites. The Soviet share of expenses
would be $15 million for development of the infrastructure on
Soviet territory and training personnel. Since 1989, the USSR
has operated its own global television network, Moskva-Global'naya.
(Victor Yasmann)


USSR - IN THE REPUBLICS



YELTSIN ELECTED RSFSR PRESIDENT. According to early official
results, Boris Yeltsin has been elected RSFSR president by more
than 60% of the votes, Soviet media report today (June 13). His
main rival, Nikolai Ryzhkov, received about 20% of the votes.
Surprisingly, leader of the Liberal-Democratic Party Vladimir
Zhirinovsky, who had appealed to Russian nationalism, seemed
to have run more successfully than former interior minister Vadim
Bakatin. More than 70% of the 104 million eligible voters cast
their ballots. Yeltsin ran poorly in many rural areas where he
generally received around 30%, but won 70% and more in urban
areas. Some predominantly military electoral districts showed
large support for Yeltsin. Yeltsin told TASS on June 12 that
he already has drafted bills to promote his policies after his
election. (Alexander Rahr)

DETAILS ON YELTSIN'S VICTORY. Interfax on June 13 reported that
Yeltsin won 90% of the votes in Sverdlovsk, 85% in Leningrad,
70-75% in Moscow, and 70% in major cities of the Far East. He
also won in the major industrial cities of Siberia, as well as
in Penza, Samara, Saratov, and Novgorod. Ryzhkov received support
in rural areas. Russian TV reported yesterday that the KGB had
supported Zhirinovsky. Gorbachev told reporters yesterday after
casting his vote that he is prepared to cooperate with each contender
for the RSFSR presidency. His wife, Raisa, told reporters that
the whole Gorbachev family voted for the politician who stands
for unity. She declined to name which of the candidates they
favored. (Alexander Rahr)

SOBCHAK, POPOV ELECTED. Soviet and Western news agencies report
today that Anatolii Sobchak and Gavriil Popov have been elected
mayors of Leningrad and Moscow, respectively. A slight majority
of Leningrad voters (54%) favored renaming their city St. Petersburg.
Popov received more than 60% of the votes, Sobchak--about 70%.
Both thus have received the necessary mandate to enhance executive
power in their cities. In Moscow, only around 60% of eligible
voters went to the polls, according to some Soviet news reports
today. Final results will not be announced until June 22. (Alexander
Rahr)

FEDOROV: "REVIVED RUSSIA WILL SURPASS US AND JAPAN". Noted eye
surgeon and successful entrepreneur Svyatoslav Fedorov told Russian
TV June 12 that Russia's revival hinges on the "de-statization"
of property. If in the US the main means of production are concentrated
in the hands of 13% of the population, Fedorov said, Russia should
spread its productive forces among 50-60% of its population by
creating "people's" enterprises and joint-stock companies. "We
have the biggest scientific community in the world, where the
intellectual component constitutes 90% of industrial costs. This
factor plus our natural resources and territory give us a chance,
in the course of one generation, to leave behind the US and,
perhaps, Japan," he argued. (Victor Yasmann)

RUSSIAN WOMEN'S ASSOCIATION REGISTERED. The all-Russian women's
association "Missiya" was registered with RSFSR Ministry of Justice
on June 7, Radio Moscow-2 reported the same day. "Missiya" will
base its activity on UN agreements prohibiting all forms of discrimination
against women, the report said. The association's projects include
support for women's initiatives in all spheres, as well as charitable
activities. (Sallie Wise)

BELORUSSIA APPROVES UNION TREATY DRAFT. Belta-TASS reported June
12 that the Supreme Soviet of Belorussia approved the basic positions
of the draft Union treaty. During a two-day debate, four different
points of view were expressed. Some deputies argued to preserve
the USSR in its present form, others backed the draft's proposals,
a third group favored a confederation. Opposition deputies supported
the creation of a fully independent Belorussian republic. (Kathy
Mihalisko)

CARDINAL LUBACHIV'SKY TO REMAIN IN UKRAINE. The head of the Ukrainian
Catholic Church, Myroslav Ivan Cardinal Lubachivs'ky, has decided
to end more than half a century of exile and return to live in
Ukraine. The office of the Rome-based Cardinal said June 12 that
he made the decision during his recently completed visit to Ukraine,
his first in 52 years. The office gave no date for his return.
In other religious news, Ukrainian Catholic priests in Mukachevo,
Transcarpathian Oblast, have launched Ukraine's first trade union
for priests, Radio Moscow said June 12. The step would enable
priests to avail themselves of amenities such as rest resorts.
(NCA/Kathy Mihalisko)

FRENCH FOREIGN MINISTER IN KIEV. French foreign minister Roland
Dumas has arrived in Kiev and plans to meet with Ukrainian Supreme
Soviet chairman Leonid Kravchuk. According to an RFE/RL Ukrainian
service report June 13, the talks will center on the possible
opening of a French consulate in Kiev. (Valentyn Moroz)

MOLDAVIAN, UKRAINIAN LEADERS CONFER IN KIEV. Moldavian President
Mircea Snegur and Prime Minister Valeriu Muravschi held talks
in Kiev June 12 with their Ukrainian counterparts, Leonid Kravchuk
and Vitold Fokin. In their reports that day, Moldovapres termed
the visit "official" while Radio Kiev termed it "working." The
leaders focused on ways to promote direct economic relations
between the two republics, and on the situation of Ukrainians
in Moldavia and Romanians/Moldavians in Ukraine, discussing steps
to meet the cultural needs of those groups. They also discussed
developments in connection with the Union treaty and preparations
for a Ukrainian-Moldavian treaty. (Vladimir Socor)

ROMPRES CHARGES MISTREATMENT OF "BROTHERS" IN UKRAINE. In an
unprecedented editorial, Romania's news agency Rompres--run by
the government's Information Department subordinated to the Prime
Minister--accused the present Ukrainian authorities of pursuing
the "denationalization" and "forced assimilation" of Romanians
in Ukraine. Listing the grievances of "our brothers" in Ukraine,
the editorial termed their area (which was annexed by the USSR
from Romania) an "occupied territory." Ostensibly timed to a
commemoration of Stalin's deportation of Romanians from northern
Bukovina, the editorial was at least as likely to have been prompted
by the June 9 appeal of Moldavian/Romanian groups in Ukraine
and by the Moldavian leaders' visit to Kiev (see Daily Report,
June 11, and the item above). (Vladimir Socor)

KIRGIZ PRESIDENT VETOES LAND LAW. Kirgiz President Askar Akaev
has vetoed an article of a new land law approved by the republic's
parliament in April, TASS reported June 12. The article, which
says that land in the republic belongs to the Kirgiz people,
has led to a flood of protest letters. Akaev is asking that it
be amended to read that the land "is the property of citizens
of Kirgiz and all other nationalities making up the republic's
people." Literaturnaya gazeta of May 29 opined that the law would
further unsettle the non-Kirgiz population. The newspaper was
reporting how a number of Russians who had fled the republic
after the violence in Osh oblast had returned, having received
a very hostile reception in the RSFSR. (Ann Sheehy)

HEALTH PROBLEMS IN TAJIKISTAN. Jawonon-i Tajikistan of May 4
reported on a conference on maternal and infant mortality in
Tajikistan on April 26, sponsored by the USSR Ministry of Health
and Tajik authorities. The report said Tajikistan is among the
republics with the lowest living standards and highest rate of
infant mortality. It was said that 17.7% of pregnant women have
serious diseases, and 10% of their children are infected with
dangerous illnesses before birth. 29.3% of pregnant women in
the republic give birth prematurely. Conference participants
attributed these alarming statistics to environmental pollution.
It has been decided that a new faculty of medicine should be
opened in Dushanbe and that nurses should be trained to aid mothers
and children. At present Tajikistan has only one gynecologist
per 20,000 women. (Fevziye Barlas)


[English] [Russian TRANS | KOI8 | ALT | WIN | MAC | ISO5]

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