The world is my country, all mankind are my brethren, and to do good is my religion. - Thomas Paine
RFE/RL Daily Report

No. 24, 04 February 1991



BALTIC STATES



GORBACHEV APPOINTS DELEGATIONS. Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev
appointed three delegations to begin discussions with the Baltic
states on "a package of political, social and economic issues,"
Western agencies reported on February 1. The high-level delegations,
named after the February 1 meeting of the USSR Federation Council,
include political and military officials, and each is chaired
by a deputy prime minister. USSR Council of Nationalities Chairman
Rafik Nishanov said that while the discussions are going on,
the Baltic states would have to "freeze anti-constitutional laws."
Tomorrow's Daily Report will carry the composition of the three
delegations. (NCA/Riina Kionka)

THOUSANDS ATTEND FUNERAL OF JONAS TAUTKUS. On February 2 thousands
of mourners jammed into the St. Peter and Paul Church in Vilnius
for the funeral of Jonas Tautkus, a 20-year old Lithuanian shot
by Soviet soldiers on January 28 at a checkpoint between Kaunas
and Vilnius, Reuter reported that day. The Reverend Pranciskus
Vaicekonis who conducted the funeral Mass said, "We have had
to witness yet another death, but we believe that the flowers
of freedom and justice will bloom again in our land." (Saulius
Girnius)

COSTS OF SOVIET BUILDING OCCUPATIONS. On February 3 Lithuanian
parliament spokesman Audrius Azubalis noted that the Soviet military
occupation of key buildings in the republic has already cost
Lithuania 36 million rubles, agencies reported that day. The
property loss at the Vilnius television tower from the attack
was estimated to be 17.6 million rubles. Other buildings still
occupied in addition to the television tower and center include
the republic's main printing plant, the newsprint warehouse,
and a police academy. (Saulius Girnius)

LITHUANIAN AUTHORITIES FILE CHARGES AGAINST JERMALAVICIUS. TASS
reported on February 3 that the Lithuanian prosecutor has started
an investigation of 51-year-old Juozas Jermalavicius, the ideology
chief of the Lithuanian Communist Party. Jermalavicius was charged
under Article 68 of the Lithuanian Criminal Code for "public
calls for violating the sovereignty of the Lithuanian state and
overthrowing state power with the use of force," The Baltimore
Sun reported on February 4. In an interview with Radio Kaunas
this morning (February 4), Jermalavicius said that he was not
afraid of the charges. He declared that the situation in Lithuania
was "uncontrollable", that in Lithuania "no laws were in force,"
and there were "no authorities." (Saulius Girnius)

FOUR ARRESTED IN TALLINN MURDERS. Radio Stockholm reported on
February 1 that two more suspects have been arrested in the murder
of two Swedish trade union leaders on January 24. One man and
a woman were detained on January 30, and two more women were
arrested on February 1. Local police authorities deny that the
killings were politically motivated. (Riina Kionka)

INTERMOVEMENT BLAMES THE KREMLIN. Estonia's conservative Russian
nationalist anti-reform Intermovement says that the CPSU CC and
the Soviet leadership are to blame for much of the tension in
the Baltic states, Paevaleht reported on February 3. Interfront
Coordinating Council chairman Evgenii Kogan said that perestroika
is "destroying the state." The Intermovement, meeting for its
second congress in the northeastern Estonian town of Kohtla-Jarve,
adopted a declaration that its main goal is to ensure "the victory
of the socialist choice" and to build a law-abiding, humane and
democratic state. (NCA/Riina Kionka)

LATVIANS SEIZED BY BLACK BERETS TRANSFERRED TO BELORUSSIA. The
five volunteer guards seized by the Black Berets in Riga on January
20 and held for a time in the Riga KGB were transferred to Belorussia
on the authority of the Latvian SSR Procuracy, reported Radio
Riga of January 31. Latvia's Supreme Council demanded that the
Latvian SSR Procuracy have the men returned to Latvia within
24 hours. Though agreement in principle was reached, it is not
known if the men are already back in Latvia. (Dzintra Bungs)


NO JOINT PATROLS IN RIGA. Radio Riga reported on February 2 that
there had been no joint army-police patrols in the Latvian capital
on February 1 when, according to Gorbachev's decree, such patrols
were to be instituted. The reason for the absence of these patrols
in Riga is that an accord had been reached between Latvia's Supreme
Council Chairman Anatolijs Gorbunovs and USSR Military District
Commander Fedor Kuz'min; they agreed that such patrols were not
necessary at this time and would be formed at the request of
the Supreme Council. (Dzintra Bungs)



USSR - ALL-UNION TOPICS



FEDERATION COUNCIL DISCUSSES UNION TREATY, BALTIC REPUBLICS.
At its third session this year on February 1, the Federation
Council discussed the Union treaty and the situation in the Baltic
republics, TASS and Moscow radio reported February 1. The question
of price reform was not discussed, although there had been reports
that it would be. The only republican leaders absent were Yeltsin,
represented by his first deputy Ruslan Khasbulatov, Georgia's
Zviad Gamsakhurdia, likewise represented by a deputy, and Lithuania's
Vytautas Landsbergis. Lithuania was represented as usual by its
permanent representative in Moscow. The discussion of the Union
treaty was described as "businesslike" but "a number of new problems
were raised, needing elaboration." (Ann Sheehy)

FOUR REPUBLICS TO OPEN TALKS. Representatives of the RSFSR, Ukraine,
Belorussia and Kazakhstan are to meet today (February 4) for
the first round of talks on a four-way cooperation agreement,
TASS announced on February 1. This is an event of enormous potential
significance since between them the four republics produce 85%
of Soviet GNP. Boris Yeltsin sees the agreement, which is supposed
to build on bilateral agreements that the four republics have
already made with one another, as a possible substitute for Gorbachev's
Union treaty. (NCA/Elizabeth Teague)

POLOZKOV CALLS FOR "CLASS STRUGGLE." Reports of the January 31
plenum of the CPSU Central Committee were published in the Soviet
press over the weekend. According to Western correspondents,
they indicated that hard-liners in the Party have seized the
initiative and are eager to launch an offensive to regain lost
ground. RSFSR CP leader Ivan Polozkov called for a counterattack
against attempts by "pseudodemocrats" to "destroy socialism"
and establish "a dictatorship of private capital." He called
for a return to the "class struggle" while CC secretary Oleg
Shenin demanded a purge of liberals and democrats from the Party
ranks. Gorbachev's comments at the plenum have not yet been published.
(Elizabeth Teague)

PARTY TRIES TO REASSERT CONTROL OVER THE ECONOMY. The report
delivered to the plenum on January 31 by deputy general secretary
Vladimir Ivashko (Pravda, February 2) was remarkable for the
emphasis it laid on the urgent necessity for the CPSU to reassert
direct control over industry and agriculture. "No other political
force," Ivashko asserted, "is capable of resolving" the tasks
that face the USSR. His words were in stark contrast with Gorbachev's
when he accepted the USSR presidency in March 1990. "An end is
being put," Gorbachev then said, "to the Party's direct interference
in the solution of specific state and economic issues." (Elizabeth
Teague)

JOINT PATROLS BEGIN. Joint patrols of Soviet policemen and soldiers
began in Moscow on February 1, but no such patrols were seen
in other major Soviet cities. "Vremya" reported that police in
Lithuania and Estonia refused to participate and that soldiers
had begun patrolling on their own. Seven republics, including
Moscow and the Baltic States, have rejected the patrols. That
patrolling did take place appeared to contradict a statement
by Interior Minister Boris Pugo that they would be deployed only
with the agreement of local elected officials. Moscow police
authorities said that no tanks or armored personnel carriers
would be used, and that ultimately up to 540 soldiers would be
deployed in the capital. (Stephen Foye)

CONSTITUTIONAL COMMITTEE EXPECTED TO SUSPEND GORBACHEV'S DECREES.
The "Authors' TV" weekly newsreel "Namedni" on February 3 reported
details of the February 1 meeting of the USSR Committee of Constitutional
Oversight devoted to Gorbachev's recent decrees. Quoting experts
present at the meeting, "Namedni's" commentator, Leonid Miloslavsky,
said that the decrees contradict not only the Soviet Constitution
but also "the aims for which they were issued." Miloslavsky cited
MVD research academy experts as saying that no financial crime
in the USSR in recent years fit the legal definition of "economic
sabotage." The decrees were defended by those from the MVD and
the Ministry of Defense who had drafted them, Miloslavsky said,
and by Yurii Golik, the lawyer recently appointed by Gorbachev
to oversee all law enforcement bodies. The Committee postponed
its decision until February 6, but Miloslavsky expects it to
suspend the decrees and to advise the President to rework them.
(Julia Wishnevsky)

SOVIET MUSLIM SPIRITUAL LEADER CALLS FOR CONFERENCE ON GULF.
The Chairman of the Transcaucasus Spiritual Directorate of Muslims,
Shaykh ul-Islam Allashukur Pasha-zade, has called for the convening
of an all-Islamic conference on the Gulf to be held in Baku,
TASS reported on January 31. Pasha-zade stated that he believed
such a conference would be evaluated world-wide as a symbol of
good will and adherence to the ideals of Islam. On January 24,
Reuter quoted Pasha-zade as arguing in a sermon that the entire
Islamic world was under assault from the US-led coalition, which
he accused of trying to split Muslim unity. (NCA/Liz Fuller)


FOREIGN MINISTRY DENIES BALTIC-GULF DEAL. Soviet Foreign Ministry
Spokesman Vitalii Churkin said on February 1 he was "empowered"
(apparently by Foreign Minister Aleksandr Bessmertnykh) to deny
that Washington and Moscow had made a deal on the Baltic and
Gulf crises. Churkin went on to say that "there is not and cannot
be any type of connection" between the Persian Gulf and the Baltic,
TASS reported February 1. (Suzanne Crow)

GENERAL PREDICTS US DEFEAT. Major General Viktor Filatov, Editor-in-Chief
of Voenno-istoricheskii zhurnal, told Komsomol'skaya pravda on
February 1 that talk of a quick allied victory is "just a propaganda
ploy." He said Iraq never intended to fight the US-led force
in the air or at sea, and that Iraq's advantage is in ground
forces. Filatov said with the start of the ground war, "we may
see the governments of Syria and Egypt begin to shake." Filotov
said it was his opinion that "the war in the Gulf will end in
a major US defeat." (NCA/Suzanne Crow)

OTHERS SAY US MISUNDERSTANDS SADDAM. Vitalii V. Naumkin, Deputy
Director of the Oriental Studies Institute, argues "enormous
losses [will] not demoralize Saddam, as they would a civilized
nation." "If, like in the war with Iran, he loses today, he will
merely say, 'fine, I will win tomorrow.' In my view, the Americans
have totally misunderstood this." Anatolii Yegorin, a senior
researcher at the same institute, said "there is little hope
that an Iraqi will retreat. He'll die, but he won't take one
step backward," the Los Angeles Times, reported February 2. (Suzanne
Crow)

SADDAM AND SOVIET POLITICS. In the same Los Angeles Times report,
Georgii Mirsky, professor at the Soviet Institute of World Economics
and International Relations, discussed Soviet conservatives and
the idea that the United States has a "hidden agenda"--the invasion
of Iraq and the overthrow or assassination of Saddam Hussein.
"President Gorbachev is under pressure from the right wing not
to be seen as an ally of Bush on this." Mirsky admitted that
leaving Saddam Hussein in power would make him appear the victor,
no matter what happens in Kuwait, and as such, simply driving
him out of Kuwait is an unsatisfactory half-measure. (Suzanne
Crow)

OFFICIAL SAYS IRAQIS HAVE NO SPARE TANK GUN PARTS. An official
who recently returned to Moscow from Baghdad said Iraq has no
spare gun barrels for its tank force. Reuter said on February
1 the official was among the Soviet specialists and embassy personnel
who left Baghdad just before the start of hostilities. The official
said Iraqi tank barrels must be changed after about every one
hundred rounds. He said he knows "for a fact" that Iraqi "didn't
manage to get [spare barrels] from the Soviet Union." (Suzanne
Crow)

BANKNOTE EXCHANGE FOLLOW-UP. Gosbank Chairman Gerashchenko told
the USSR Cabinet of Ministers on January 30 that, as of January
25, "over 8 billion rubles' worth" of the old 50- and 100-ruble
notes had not been exchanged. This suggests that some 40 billion
rubles' worth of old notes were handed in. Although the special
commissions have not yet completed their scrutiny of the larger
accumulations of cash, it appears that the value of notes that
will be effectively confiscated is far smaller than had been
anticipated. ("Informed estimates" had ranged from 26 billion
to 38 billion rubles' worth). The point of the exercise--and
the concomitant loss of confidence--is thereby put in question.
(Keith Bush)

NO MORE BANKNOTE EXCHANGES? Responding to a question on Central
Television (1900, February 2) about rumors that 25- and 10-ruble
notes would be withdrawn, Prime Minister Pavlov asserted that
the government has no plans to withdraw more currency from circulation,
nor will it freeze savings deposits. Viewers may be somewhat
skeptical because Pavlov had denied on television (1530, January
9) that any currency reform was envisaged: this was just two
weeks before the banknote exchange was announced on January 22.
(Keith Bush)

BANK FOR BUSINESSWOMEN TO OPEN. The first bank in the USSR geared
to helping women entrepreneurs is due to open this month. A Novosti
report of January 29 said that the bank was proposed by the Eva
Businesswomen's Association to protect the interests of women
in business. Novosti quoted the association's head, Natalya Borchik,
as saying the bank will attract customers by offering higher
dividends and granting credits to businesswomen at lower interest
rates than those offered by ordinary commercial banks. One sponsor
of the bank is the USSR Bank for Housing and Social Amenities,
which has given it 50 million rubles. (NCA/Sallie Wise)

KRYUCHKOV ON POSSIBLE REPLACEMENT. KGB chief Vladimir Kryuchkov
told Literaturnaya gazeta on January 23 that seventy KGB pensioners
have recently quit the CPSU. He stressed that the KGB fully supports
Mikhail Gorbachev's foreign policy and had favored the abolition
of article 6 of the USSR Constitution (CPSU monopoly) last year.
Kryuchkov noted that he no longer takes part in meetings of the
Politburo, which has stopped playing a political role. Asked
if he may soon be replaced by his more hardline deputy, Filipp
Bobkov, Kryuchkov replied: "I think Bobkov has the right political
convictions, supports perestroika, and has no intentions to become
KGB chief." (Alexander Rahr)

MORE CULTURAL FIGURES BOYCOTT SOVIET TV. A Soviet TV moderator
announced February 3 that Arkadii Arkanov, a prominent Soviet
satirist, as well as his friends, had refused to participate
in Soviet TV programming, and therefore the scheduled program
had to be replaced. The show, "Arkadii Arkanov with Friends and
for Friends," was initially scheduled to last 2 hours and 20
minutes on Sunday in prime time. Arkanov must have joined 60
leading theater workers who intend to boycott Soviet TV in protest
against its distorted coverage of the events in Lithuania and
Latvia. In an open letter published in Komsomol'skaya pravda
January 24, the sixty celebrities warned that they will not appear
on television until RSFSR republican TV begins broadcasting.
(Julia Wishnevsky)

USSR - IN THE REPUBLICS



GOSTELERADIO REDUCES FREQUENCIES RADIO ROSSIYA CAN USE. The State
Committee for TV and Radio (Gosteleradio) has reduced the frequencies
used by Radio Rossiya, Radio Moscow reported on February 2. A
spokesman for Radio Rossiya said the move deprived the radio
of a big audience. The radio had to stop its broadcasts on frequencies
used by Radio Moscow's first and second (Mayak) program, and
is now restricted to the third program. The restriction was reportedly
imposed after President Gorbachev complained to Gosteleradio
chairman Leonid Kravchenko about Radio Rossiya coverage of the
events in the Baltics. (Vera Tolz)

EDITORS OF RSFSR NEWSPAPERS SUPPORT RADIO ROSSIYA. A meeting
of editors of newspapers published in the RSFSR condemned the
restrictions imposed by Gosteleradio on Radio Rossiya, Radio
Moscow-1 reported February 2. The meeting issued an appeal on
the matter addressed to the Soviet President, the RSFSR Supreme
Soviet, the republican government, and Gosteleradio. Condemning
the restrictions as a violation of the press law, the appeal
complained that from now on only 60% of the population of the
RSFSR would be able to listen to Radio Rossiya. (Vera Tolz)

EDITORS OF RSFSR PRESS DEMAND CREATION OF REPUBLICAN TV. The
same meeting of editors of the RSFSR press reiterated a call
for the establishment of republican television in the RSFSR.
The editors called on Gosteleradio to make the second channel
of Central TV available for the All-Russian state radio company,
Radio Moscow-1 reported February 2. (Vera Tolz)

RSFSR SUPREME SOVIET REACHES NO DECISION ON REFERENDUM. The RSFSR
Supreme Soviet held a lengthy but inconclusive debate on February
1 on holding an RSFSR referendum at the same time as the all-Union
referendum on the preservation of the Union scheduled for March
17, TASS reported February 1. Over 400 deputies, more than the
minimum necessary, wanted citizens of the republics to be polled
on introducing the post of president elected by public vote,
and on the prospects for the RSFSR's existence "as a sovereign
federal state forming part of a union of sovereign republics
on a voluntary and equal basis." The argument was about the formulation
of the question, not the RSFSR forming part of the Union. The
debate will be resumed in a few days. (Ann Sheehy)

GOLIK ATTACKS YELTSIN. Yurii Golik, recently appointed head of
the new committee charged with coordinating all-Union law enforcement,
verbally attacked Boris Yeltsin on Siberian television February
2, according to a Postfactum report the next day. Golik called
Yeltsin "a man with whom it is impossible to agree in principle...a
lying and inconsistent man." (Sallie Wise)

KUYBYSHEV TAKES BACK OLD NAME. The city of Kuybyshev, on the
Volga, has taken back its historical name of Samara. TASS reported
on January 29 that the decision was made at a meeting of the
RSFSR Supreme Soviet Presidium the same day. The Kuybyshev region
has also been renamed Samara region. Samara joins several other
Russian cities, including Tver' (Kalinin) and Nizhnyi Novgorod
(Gorky), that have reclaimed their former names. (NCA/Sallie
Wise)

UKRAINIAN DISSENT AT UN FORUM. In evident criticism of Moscow's
crackdown in the Baltic, a Ukrainian delegate to the UN Human
Rights Commission meeting in Geneva said that the Soviet Union
should develop into a new commonwealth that respects freedom
of choice and rejects the use of violence in any form, AP reported
on February 1. The Ukrainian envoy, Volodymyr Vasylenko, citing
the Ukrainian declaration of state sovereignty, maintained that
any infringements of the principle of national self-determination
have always been accompanied by the violation of human rights
and the rights of peoples. (NCA/Roman Solchanyk)

UKRAINIAN SUPREME SOVIET CONVENES. The third session of the Ukrainian
Supreme Soviet convened on February 1 and adopted a resolution
placing the all-Union coal and metallurgical industries in the
republic directly under Kiev's control, Radio Kiev reported on
February 1. The session is expected to last until June 28. (Roman
Solchanyk)

UKRAINIAN INTER-PARTY ASSEMBLY REJECTS REFERENDUM. The Ukrainian
Inter-Party Assembly, one of many new political groupings formed
in Ukraine last year, announced at a press conference in Kiev
that it will not acknowledge the results of the March 17 referendum
regardless of how the vote goes, Radio Kiev reported on February
1. It also called for a two-hour political strike on the first
day of the trial of Ukrainian people's deputy Stepan Khmara.
(Roman Solchanyk)

UKRAINIAN ARMY UNDER DISCUSSION. Members of the Narodna rada
parliamentary faction, Rukh, the Association of Democratic Soviets
of Ukraine, and a previously unknown group called "Committee
for the Resurrection of the Armed Forces in Ukraine" opened a
conference in Kiev over the weekend devoted to "steps toward
the realization of a Ukrainian army." Also attending, said Radio
Kiev on February 3, were philosopher Volodymyr Mulyava--author
of a recent piece in the Ukrainian DOSAAF weekly about the need
for a national army (see Daily Report, February 1)--Colonel Valerii
Kryvoboskyi of the staff of the Kiev Military District and, intriguingly,
the son of the former Commander-in-Chief of the Ukrainian Insurgent
Army. (Kathy Mihalisko)

BELORUSSIAN PROGRAM FOR CHERNOBYL-RELATED BIRTH DEFECTS. On February
2, the Belorussian Supreme Soviet adopted a program aimed at
curbing genetic birth defects related to the Chernobyl nuclear
disaster. The program, according to TASS, will include prenatal
diagnostics, distribution of condoms, and comprehensive monitoring
of newborns. The occurance of congenital defects and illnesses
such as cancer and heart disease is reported to be on the rise.
(NCA/Kathy Mihalisko)

AGREEMENT ON BAIKONUR. The government of Kazakhstan has reached
an agreement with Glavkosmos, the Soviet space agency, about
the Baikonur launching facility in Kzyl-Orda Oblast, according
to a report on the February 2 edition of "Vremya." Republican
leaders and journalists have complained that Kazakhstan has no
control over, and little knowledge of, what goes on at the complex.
A Radio Moscow report on the agreement said that the republican
government demanded that the facility directly benefit the republic.
Glavkosmos has undertaken to provide satellite relay of Kazakh
television, and has accepted two Kazakhs in the cosmonaut program.
(Bess Brown)

COMMUNIST PARTY TAKES OVER TWO NEWSPAPERS IN KAZAKHSTAN. The
Central Committee of the Kazakhstan CP has declared itself sole
owner of the two republican dailies, the Russian-language Kazakhstanskaya
pravda and Kazakh-language Sotsialistik Qazaqstan, according
to Radio Moscow, quoting Izvestia, on February 1. The two newspapers
were formerly jointly owned by the Central Committee and the
republican government and Supreme Soviet. The report quoted Party
second secretary Vladislav Anufriev as telling Kazakhstanskaya
pravda's editorial staff that "We need a paper like Sovetskaya
Rossiya. It's time to put a stop to pseudo-democracy, to any
kind of Popovs and Sobchaks." (Bess Brown)

BRANCH OF ISLAMIC PARTY FOUNDED IN UZBEKISTAN. RFE/RL has learned
from a journalist in Tashkent that a branch of the all-Union
Islamic Renaissance Party held a founding congress on January
26. Militia invaded the congress, detained some participants
and fined them for holding an unauthorized assembly. The journalist
said that in addition to Uzbeks, the congress included participants
from other Central Asian and Caucasian republics and the RSFSR.
A branch of the party was set up in Tajikistan in 1990, and has
been continually harassed by the authorities there. (Bess Brown)


MOLDAVIAN PREMIER DEFENDS HIMSELF. Moldavian premier Mircea Druc
has defended himself in the republican press against accusations
in parliament and outside that he has been wasting state funds
travelling abroad and has protected cooperatives engaged in profiteering,
Moldova-pres reported February 1. Druc said his foreign trips
had brought commercial benefits, and his trip to the US was funded
by American businessmen. The largely Russian-speaking deputy
group "Sovetskaya Moldova," which has been demanding his resignation
ever since the deaths in Dubossary last November, wants Druc
to answer their questions in parliament. Meanwhile several demonstrations
in support of Druc have taken place outside the parliament. (Ann
Sheehy)

TRIAL OF GAGAUZ LEADER BEGINS. The trial of 38-year old Ivan
Burgudzhi, one of the leaders of the "Gagauz khalik" movement,
banned after the Gagauz republic was proclaimed, began in the
Moldavian capital, Kishinev, on January 31, TASS reported January
31. Burgudzhi was seized by the militia in October 1990 when
Moldavian volunteers attached the Gagauz areas of the republic.
According to TASS, Burgudzhi is being detained in violation of
the law since the soviet of which he is a deputy has not sanctioned
his arrest. He is charged with the illegal possession of ammunition,
a charge which he denies. (Ann Sheehy)

GEORGIA CUTS OFF POWER SUPPLIES TO SOUTH OSSETIAN CAPITAL. Radio
Moscow reported on February 3 that the independent Georgian Power
Workers' Union had cut electricity supplies to the South Ossetian
capital Tskhinvali and the neighboring Dzhava raion to protest
what was termed "the deteriorating plight of the area's Georgian
population." This action has exacerbated the already tense situation
in the region. (Liz Fuller)

[As of 1300 CET]

Compiled by Patrick Moore and Sallie Wise


[English] [Russian TRANS | KOI8 | ALT | WIN | MAC | ISO5]

F&P Home ° Comments ° Guestbook


1996 Friends and Partners
Natasha Bulashova, Greg Cole
Please visit the Russian and American mirror sites of Friends and Partners.
Updated: 1998-11-

Please write to us with your comments and suggestions.

F&P Quick Search
Main Sections
Home
Bulletin Board
Chat Room
F&P Listserver

RFE/RL
1999
1998
1997
1996
1995
1994
1993
1992
1991
Search

News
News From Russia/NIS
News About Russia/NIS
Newspapers & Magazines
Global News
Weather

©1996 Friends and Partners
Please write to us with any comments, questions or suggestions -- Natasha Bulashova, Greg Cole