We may live without friends; we may live without books; But civilized man cannot live without cooks. - Edward G. Bulwer-Lytton
RFE/RL Daily Report

No. 9, 14 January 1991


EVENTS IN LITHUANIA TODAY. After a peaceful night, the Lithuanian
Supreme Council held a brief morning session to discuss the burial
on January 16 of those killed during the television tower assault
on January 13. The next three days have been declared to be "days
of mourning." Kaunas television has taken over national broadcasting
since Vilnius workers have refused to cooperate with the military.
Landsbergis spoke with Gorbachev this morning, Reuters reports.
Gorbachev said that the Federation Council delegation in Vilnius
is authorized to negotiate in his name and agreed to a Lithuanian
request to allow the republic's health ministry officials into
buildings under Soviet army control to check for additional dead
and wounded. (Saulius Girnius)

January 13 Soviet army troops and tanks stormed the Vilnius television
and radio tower, resulting in 14 fatalities and more than 140
people injured. Ten of the dead were from Vilnius, 3 were from
other Lithuanian cities, and one was a soldier from Pskov, said
to have been killed by automatic weapons fire. All but one of
the dead, who was crushed by a tank, died of bullet wounds. Graphic
film of the assault, broadcast throughout the world, clearly
contradicted Soviet media claims that the army was reacting to
shots from the television tower. (Saulius Girnius)

UNEASY DAY IN LITHUANIA. January 13 was an uneasy day in Lithuania
as it was unclear whether the Soviet military would make any
more assaults. Radio Vilnius was silenced but Radio Kaunas continued
broadcasting as did a temporary transmitter at the Lithuanian
parliament. Soviets troops continued to intimidate the people;
tanks and other armored vehicles patrolled the streets of Vilnius;
a road block was set up on the highway to Vilnius from Kaunas;
and a curfew was announced by the military. (Saulius Girnius)

USSR Federation Council consisting of Armenian President Levon
Ter-Petrosyan, Belorussian President Nikolai Dementei, and Ukrainian
poet and parliamentarian Boris Oleinik, arrived in Vilnius January
13. Ignoring the pro-Moscow "National Salvation Committee" that
claims to have taken over power in Lithuania, they went to the
Lithuanian parliament. They also visited the television tower
and other sites where the military had been active. They expressed
shock when they viewed films of the military attack. (Saulius

PARLIAMENT REMAINS IN SESSION. The Lithuanian parliament remained
in session. The building was surrounded by more than 100,000
people, who assembled to protect it from the possible military
attack. The delegation from the USSR Federation Council recommended
a meeting with the military which resulted in an agreement that
the military would stop its patrols through the streets if the
crowd assembled outside the parliament building dispersed. Many
people obeyed President Vytautas Landsbergis' call to disperse.
(Saulius Girnius)

NEW LITHUANIAN PRIME MINISTER. When Lithuanian Prime Minister
Albertas Simenas did not appear at the emergency meeting of the
Lithuanian Supreme Soviet and there were reports that he and
his family had been seized by the Soviet military, parliament
elected Gediminas Vagnorius as the new prime minister with Zigmas
Vaisvila as his deputy. Parliament confirmed its decision to
retain the eleven ministers it approved on January 11 and to
reappoint the other former ministers. Simenas later reappeared,
but his disappearance has not yet been explained and Vagnorius
remains the prime minister. (Saulius Girnius)

parliament decided to appoint Foreign Minister Algirdas Saudargas
(who was in Warsaw) to head a Lithuanian government in exile
and gave him the right to appoint other members. He would assume
this post if the Lithuanian parliament was no longer able to
function normally. (Saulius Girnius)

EVENTS IN LITHUANIA ON JANUARY 11. A group of unnamed pro-Moscow
Communist Party supporters announced the creation of a National
Salvation Committee which would, they said, assume power in the
republic. Soviet television announced that strikes had been called
at 23 institutions and that workers at the Ignalina atomic power
plant had declared they would close the plant down on January
15 if the government did not comply with Gorbachev's appeal to
restore the USSR Constitution. (Saulius Girnius)

EVENTS IN LITHUANIA ON JANUARY 12. Early in the morning Soviet
paratroopers seized one of the two Lithuania's Police Academy
buildings and a villa used by the Lithuanian National OBard.
The situation in Lithuania, however, eased after the Federation
Council meeting in Moscow and Gorbachev's declaration that no
more army actions would be undertaken in Lithuania. (Saulius

Presidium viewed "with alarm and indignation" the Soviet military
action in Lithuania. In their statement of January 12, the Latvian
leaders said "the events in Lithuania are aimed not just at the
Baltic peoples, but also against all those who believe in the
overall rebirth of the peoples of the USSR." (Dzintra Bungs)

SITUATION TENSE BUT QUIET IN RIGA. Despite numerous rumors of
imBinent Soviet troop intervention in Riga, the Latvian capitaB
was still quiet this morning. Troop movements have bBen reported
in and around Riga over the weekend and miBitary helicopters
were used to disseminate leaflets over the demonstrators who
had gathered on the banks of the Daugava on January 13 to show
their solidarity with the government and Supreme Council. (Dzintra

BARRICADES IN RIGA. In response to an appeal by the People's
Front of Latvia, concerned Latvians erected barricades around
the Supreme Council, Council of Ministers, Radio and Television
buildings last night. Thousands of Latvians have been standing
watch at those sites. They are afraid that Soviet forces may
try to take over those buildings. Their vigil has been eased
by musicians and by coffee and food being provided by nearby
churches and cafes. Today people also started to guard the main
telephone and communications building in Riga, according to Radio
Riga of January 13 and 14. (Dzintra Bungs)

SCHOOLS CLOSED IN RIGA. Radio Riga announced on January 13 that
all educational institutions, from kindergartens to the university,
would be closed as of January 14 and would remain closed until
further notice from the Ministry of Education. (Dzintra Bungs)

on January 11 that elected representatives from all over Latvia
had appealed that morning to USSR President Mikhail Gorbachev,
urging him to seek democratic and peaceful solutions to the existing
problems between Latvia and the USSR. They noted that at least
70% of all elected representatives in Latvia support the policies
of the government and stand behind Chairman of the Supreme Council
Anatolijs Gorbunovs and Prime Minister Ivars Godmanis. (Dzintra

thousands of Latvia's residents responded to the call to the
People's Front and converged on the banks of the Daugava RBver
to show their commitment to a democratic and independenB Latvia
and their confidence in the government of Premier Ivars Godmanis
and in the work of the Supreme Council. RBmualdas Razukas, PFL
chairman, called on Latvians to show that they are behind their
government and elected representatives. After the speeches and
patriotic songs, the throngs procBeded peacefully to place flowers
at the Monument of Liberty, Radio Riga reported January 13. (Dzintra

intermittently throughout the weekend, the Latvian Supreme Council
adopted several documents, including an appeal to the United
Nations, reported Radio Riga on January 14. One document, dated
January 13, is addressed to UN Secretary General Perez de Cuellar.
It urges the UN to form an international commission to analyze
the situation in the Baltic States anOBto examine all documents
and other evidence about "the military aggression against the
people of Latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia." The legislators also
appealed to Soviet soldiers in Latvia not to carry out any orders
by their commanders to use weapons against unarmed civilians.
(Dzintra Bungs)

ESTONIA CALM. In the aftermath of the military crackdown in Lithuania,
Estonia is calm but anxious, sources in Tallinn report. News
organizations have made contingency plans for transmitting information
in case a similar crackdown comes in Estonia, and public figures
have urged the population to be prepared. Yesterday, the Tallinn
city council announced a three-day mourning period for those
killed in Vilnius over the weekend, Estonian Radio reported.
During the three days, flags will be floBn at half-mast and all
films, concerts and sporting events have been cancelled. Retail
alcohol sales will be banned during the mourning period, and
bars will have shortened hours. (Riina Kionka)

Supreme Council yesterday set up an emergency defense council
to take over its duties in case developments make it impossible
for the presidium to meet, Estonian TV reported yesterday.B The
three-member council consists of President Arnold Ruutel, Prime
Minister Edgar Savisaar and Parliament Speaker Ulo Nugis. The
presidium also voted to give emergency council members the authority
to pass their seat on the council to another person, should developments
make it impossible for them to serve in person. (Riina Kionka)

OB PARLIAMENT, GOVERNMENT APPEAL. Estonia's government and the
Supreme Council's presidium yesterday issued a joint appeal to
the parliaments and governments of all states, Estonian TV reported.
The appealBcalls on them "to help in stopping the aggression
against the Republic of Lithuania, and to use all measures at
their disOBsal to arrest the escalation of military violence
in the Baltic states." (Riina Kionka)

YELTSIN AND BALTIC APPEAB. Chairman of the RSFSR Supreme Soviet
Boris Yeltsin yesterday flew to Estonia to confer with Baltic
leaders, Estonian TB reported. Yeltsin and his three Baltic counterparts--Estonia's
Arnold Ruutel, Latvia's Anatolijs Gorbunovs and Lithuania's Landsbergis--issued
a joint condemnation of the Soviet military action in Lithuania.
The four--with Landsbergis participating by telephone from Vilnius--called
for an emergency international conference to help stop moves
against the Baltic republics. The four also issued a joint statement
respecting each other's democratically elected parliaments and
governments, and rejecting any attempt at setting up parallel
organizations. Yeltsin also issued a separate appeal to all "soldiers,
sergeant and officers" not to fire on civilians in the Baltic.
(Riina Kionka)

YELTSIN ON MILITARY ACTION. During his Tallinn press conference
broadcast yesterday on Estonian TV, RSFSR President Boris Yeltsin
said he had spoken that day to both President Mikhail Gorbachev
and Defense Minister Dmitrii Yazov. Yeltsin said that both men
reiterated their earlier statements that they had had no prior
knowledge of the Soviet military crackdown in Lithuania. (Riina

who attended Saturday's meeting of the Council of the Federation
in Moscow said republic leaders from across the country had expressed
strong objections to the action of Soviet troops in Lithuania,
Reuters and AP reported on January 12. The Council sent a delegation
to Lithuania in hopes of resolving the situation by peaceful
means. Latvian president Anatolijs Gorbunovs was cited as saying
"Everyone spoke out against events in Lithuania. I cannot recall
anyone approving this." (NCA)

PUGO'S REPORT CRITICIZED. Estonian prime minister Edgar Savisaar
was quoted by wire services as saying republic leaders criticized
a report on the Lithuanian situation delivered to the Council
of the Federation in Moscow on January 12 by interior minister
Boris Pugo. He said they felt it was biased. Savisaar said Mikhail
Gorbachev appeared satisfied with Pugo's report, and seemed "stunned"
by the criticism from republic leaders. Savisaar quoted the Soviet
president as saying he needed more information on the situation
in Lithuania. (NCA)

DEMONSTRATIONS IN MOSCOW, LENINGRAD. Demonstrations were organized
by "Democratic Russia" in Moscow and Leningrad yesterday to protest
the military action in Lithuania. Similar demonstrations were
reported from the Moldavian capital Kishinev, and from Kiev and
Lvov in Ukraine. Soviet Television showed the Moscow demonstration
on its "Vremya" evening newscast. "Vremya's" coverage put only
the official position on the military action, but a more nuanced
approach was adopted by the late night newscast "TSN," which
expressed its regret that it could report only the official interpretation
and which gave not only the official death toll of two, but also
the calculation of the Lithuanian ministry of health, which at
that time stood at 13 dead. (NCA)

City Soviet Anatolii Sobchak was a lone voice opposing the organization
in Leningrad of a demonstration against military intervention
in Lithuania, Radio Liberty's Russian Service was told by a correspondent
in Leningrad Sunday. The majority of the members of the City
Soviet voted for it. The demonstration was said to have been
attended by about 13,000. (Victor Yasmann)

yesterday in Kishinev, the National Alliance for the Independence
of Moldavia, which consists of the Moldavian Popular Front and
a dozen other organizations, condemned "the aggression of the
Soviet armed forces and the anti-national imperial organizations
against the Lithuanian people." The resolution also proclaimed
support for "Lithuania's legitimate state institutions" and "total
solidarity with the Lithuanian people's just struggle for freedom
and independence." Placards and chants called for "Soviet hands
off Lithuania" and equated Gorbachev with Saddam Hussein. (Vladimir

of Ukraine, or "Rukh," has declared its solidarity with "the
freedom-loving Lithuanian people" in a statement addressed to
the Supreme Council of the Republic of Lithuania, Lithuanian
radio reported yesterday. The statement is signed by "Rukh" chairman
Ivan Drach. Reports reaching Munich this morning say there have
been demonstrations against the military actions in Lithuania
in several Ukrainian cities, including Kiev, Lvov, and Ternopol.
(Roman Solchanyk)

KGB TROOPS INVOLVED? The paratroopers who stormed the Vilnius
Radio and Television Center on Saturday were from the Vitebsk
Airborne Division, according to a report to Radio Liberty's Russian
Service from a correspondent in Vilnius. Last summer the Vitebsk
division, together with several other elite units, was transferred
to the command of the KGB. (This was revealed in the USSR Supreme
Soviet in September, 1990, in the wake of rumors about a possible
coup d'etat.) The Vitebsk division played an active role in Afghanistan
as well as in Tbilisi in April 1989 and in Baku in January 1990.
(Victor Yasmann)

yesterday, Shevardnadze told BALTFAX that he had made no comments
in the last two days on the situation in Lithuania. He also said
he had not spoken with foreign reporters about the situation.
According to ADN's report yesterday, there have been foreign
media reports that Shevardnadze described Lithuania as a testing
ground for a military putsch in the USSR. Shevardnadze apparently
does not deny telling Christian Science Monitor television last
week that the deployments in the Baltic states represent "a simple
desire to introduce order." (See Daily Report January 11, 1991.)
(Suzanne Crow)


meeting of the Federation Council was attended by the presidents,
chairmen of the parliaments, and heads of the governments of
the all the Union republics except Georgia, and also Lithuania
which was represented by its permanent representative in Moscow,
TASS reported. Leaders of the autonomous republics were also
present. The economic agreement between the center and republics
for 1991 was adopted but not finalized or signed, according to
"Vremya." The chairman of the Latvian Supreme Council Anatolijs
Gorbunovs said Latvia would not sign the agreement but had agreed
on its contribution to the all-Union budget. (Ann Sheehy)

UNION TREATY TO BE CONCLUDED MID-1991? Commenting on Saturday's
session of the Federation Council, which discussed progress on
the Union treaty, Kirgiz president Askar Akaev said that the
treaty could be signed in April or May, TASS reported January
12. CPSU Secretary Andrei Girenko said in Kishinev on January
11 that, if everything proceeded normally, the signing of the
treaty could take place in mid-1991, TASS reported January 11.
(Ann Sheehy)

WHO IS IN CHARGE IN MOSCOW? There is speculation in the Western
press today as to the whereabouts of Mikhail Gorbachev. Soviet
media reported Saturday evening that he chaired a session of
the revamped Federation Council that day, and presented to it
a range of potential nominees for the post of prime minister.
But there was no report of his activities on Sunday. Lithuanian
president Landsbergis said Saturday that he had tried to reach
Gorbachev twice by telephone but was told Gorbachev was either
at lunch or unavailable. On Sunday morning, RFE's Lithuanian
Service was told by a contributor in Vilnius, Lithuanian officials
who tried to telephone Gorbachev were told he was not present.
(Elizabeth Teague)

SUPREME SOVIET PASSES BUDGET. On Friday, the Supreme Soviet passed
the 1991 budget, with government incomes totalling some 250,157
billion rubles and expenditures totalling 276,820 billion, according
to TASS. Important new items include: a 5 percent sales tax projected
to total 36 billion rubles (note: the text of the decree on the
new tax indicates that it will be a sales tax, not a value added
tax as some have interpreted it), transfers from republican budgets
of 41.6 billion rubles, and an increase in defense spending to
96.6 billion (though that is said to represent a decrease in
spending from last year in real terms). (John Tedstrom)

...BUT CAN IT BE ACHIEVED? If achieved, the budget deficit of
about 26 billion rubles will represent a significant reduction
in relative terms from about 9-11 percent of Soviet GNP in 1989-90
to about 3-4 percent of GNP in 1991. There is room for doubt,
however, as to whether the budget represents a realistic view
of the country's fiscal activities in 1991. First, the leadership
may have overestimated revenues from the profit tax. If output
falls more than the planned 2-4 percent (which is likely), profit
tax revenue will fall sharply as well. On the other hand, the
leadership may have underestimated expenditures on social services
(for example for unemployment). That could likewise broaden the
gap between income and expenditures. (John Tedstrom)

told the USSR Supreme Soviet on Saturday that the chairman of
Gosteleradio, Leonid Kravchenko, would provide a written explanation
of the censoring of the popular show, "Vzglyad." Kravchenko's
response, Luk'yanov said, will be distributed to deputies on
Monday morning. Luk'yanov was answering a question from a liberal
Ukrainian deputy, Vladimir Chernyak. Kravchenko was nominated
to head Soviet radio and television by Gorbachev in late November;
his appointment has yet to be approved by the Supreme Soviet.
(Julia Wishnevsky)

Thursday that, having gotten "Vzglyad" banned from the airwaves,
Gosteleradio chief Leonid Kravchenko was continuing his crackdown
on Central Soviet Television. Apart from "Vzglyad," the popular
"Authors' Television" (avtorskoe televidenie) has also been banned.
Several other programs are also scheduled for cancellation, Radio
"Rossiya" said, noting that the closures will affect 72 employees
of Central TV, the radio said. (Vera Tolz)

the most popular Soviet TV show was announced by presenter Igor
Kirillov on Friday. "The thaw is over," Kirillov added, employing
the word commonly used to describe the short period of liberalization
under Nikita Khrushchev. (Julia Wishnevsky)

TV JOURNALIST FIRED. Another "Vzglyad" moderator, Aleksandr Politkovsky,
told RL's Russian Service Friday that the censoring of "Vzglyad"
is only part of a broader campaign launched by Kravchenko against
independent-minded television journalists. Politkovsky revealed
that Vladimir Lomakin, a moderator of the official TV newscast
"Vremya," was banned by Kravchenko from appearing on the screen
when he refused to read a biased TASS dispatch on the situation
in Lithuania. (Julia Wishnevsky)

YELTSIN OFFERS TO HELP. Yeltsin has offered a haven both to "Vzglyad"
and to the independent news agency, Interfax, which Kravchenko
tried to close down. "Vzglyad" may be taken under the wing of
the RSFSR State radio and television if the latter starts operation
in the late March as has been promised. Interviewed in Izvestia
December 30, a high-ranking TV official, Vladimir Bogdanov, announced
that RSFSR television will be independent of Kravchenko's Gosteleradio.
Yeltsin's offer to "Vzglyad" makes sense in that given that three
of its moderators--Aleksandr Politkovsky, Aleksandr Lyubimov
and Vladimir Mukusev--are members of the RSFSR Congress of People's
Deputies. (Julia Wishnevsky)

PRIMAKOV ON SADDAM HUSSEIN. Soviet Middle East expert Yevgenii
Primakov said in a CNN interview over the weekend that Saddam
Hussein is convinced there is a conspiracy to surround Iraq as
a result of what he characterizes as his defeat of Iran. Primakov
says he has known Saddam for 21 years and believes that "if [Saddam]
is sure that the only choice is either to die, or to stand on
his knees only to die afterward, he would prefer war, where everybody
loses," Reuters reported yesterday. Primakov has repeatedly called
on the West to offer Saddam a way of saving face and to provide
guarantees that Iraq will not be attacked in case of its withdrawal.
(Suzanne Crow)

SUPSOV RESOLUTION ON GULF CRISIS. Supreme Soviet deputies on
January 12 backed a resolution recommending that Gorbachev "carry
out additional steps with the Iraqi leadership, the United States
and other parties involved" to reach a peaceful solution in the
Persian Gulf. The resolution passed with 312 votes for, 27 against,
and 36 abstentions. The deputies did not specify what the additional
steps might entail, Reuters reported. According to Supreme Soviet
foreign affairs committee chairman Aleksandr Dzasokhov, Soviet
deputies believe the Gulf crisis affects the Soviet Union's supreme
national interests. Dzasokhov is one of those tipped as Gorbachev's
choice for foreign minister. (Suzanne Crow)

BESSMERTNYKH AS FOREIGN MINISTER? Interfax quotes Soviet foreign
ministry sources as saying Gorbachev will name Aleksandr Bessmertnykh,
currently ambassador to the US, to take over for Shevardnadze,
Reuter says today. Interfax said it was not certain if other
candidates would be named. Bessmertnykh, whose thinking is closely
associated with that of Shevardnadze, would likely be opposed
by conservatives. On the other hand, his appointment would help
calm Western worries that the USSR is abandoning its reform course.
Another candidate lately rumored to be in the running--Politburo
member Aleksander Dzasokhov--is for the most part unknown in
the West and would likely be welcomed by Soviet conservatives.
(Suzanne Crow)

IGNATENKO ON DRAFT ENFORCEMENT. In January 13 Argumenty i fakty,
Presidential press aide Vitalii Ignatenko skirted a question
over whether Gorbachev himself ordered airborne troops into the
republics, claiming only that it was decided to assist military
commissariats in combatting "catastrophic" levels of draft evasion.
He rejected suggestions that draft shortfalls in the Baltic could
easily be made up in the RSFSR and said a draft shortfall of
5,000 men in Moscow was not analogous to the situation in the
Baltic. He also denied that a widely reported assembly of Baltic
military leaders took place in Riga several weeks ago, and warned
that the army would continue to enforce draft regulations. (Stephen

SOVIETS SUSPEND NUCLEAR TESTING. Deputy Prime Minister Igor Belousov
announced to the USSR Supreme Soviet on January 12 that, in response
to domestic protests, Moscow will suspend all underground nuclear
tests for the first four months of this year, TASS reported.
On January 10, the US rejected a proposed amendment that would
have extended a 1963 ban on atmospheric testing to underground
testing as well. There have been protests against nuclear tests
around the Semipalatinsk site in Kazakhstan, and residents in
the northern USSR have decried testing on the island of Novaya
Zemlya. (NCA/Stephen Foye)

issued a decree on the creation of "military-political organs"
(voenno-politicheskie organy) within the Armed Forces, the KGB
and MVD troops, and the Railroad troops. In practical terms,
this means that political organs formerly controlled by the CPSU
Central Committee will now fall under the jurisdiction of the
USSR Council of Ministers. This another step in the "etatization"
of powers previously exercised by the CPSU. (Victor Yasmann)


MORE DEATHS IN SOUTH OSSETIA. Radio Moscow reported on January
11 that a tank subunit was being dispatched to South Ossetia
to guard army depots and prevent arms thefts. TASS reported on
January 12 that three Georgian police officers and one Ossetian
were killed in an attack on the MVD building in Tskhinvali the
previous night. USSR Minister of Internal Affairs Boris Pugo
told the USSR Supreme Soviet on January 12 that the dispatch
of Georgian militia to the area had caused the violence there
to escalate, and that the situation would improve only when Gorbachev's
order to withdraw Georgian militia from South Ossetia is put
into force. (Liz Fuller)

DRUC ON RELATIONS WITH MOSCOW. Iterviewed January 11 by RFE in
Washington, Moldavian Prime Minister Mircea Druc reiterated Moldavia's
stand that the union treaty proposed by Moscow was "unacceptable".
A possible Soviet military action against Moldavia would be resisted
by the people with nonviolent means, he said; he would advocate
the use of "Gandhian methods". (Vladimir Socor)

soldiers stationed in Moldavia began systematically rounding
up young Moldavians who had failed to report for military service
or had left their military units. Some of those apprehended are
reportedly being beaten. The republican government has thus far
failed to openly protest the violation of Moldavia's declaration
of sovereignty and of its laws which suspended the obligation
of military service. Moldavian First Vice-Premier Constantin
Oboroc said on Moldavian television January 11, as cited by TASS,
that Moldavia and the USSR Ministry of Defense had negotiated
a compromise under which Moldavian conscripts would serve only
in Moldavia and immediately adjacent areas. (Vladimir Socor)

Moldavian political and cultural figures addressing a rally in
Kishinev yesterday's, and the resolution adopted at the rally,
warned that Moldavia may also face Soviet military action aimed
at nullifying Moldavia's declaration of sovereignty and forcing
it to sign "an imperial treaty of union." The resolution urged
the Moldavian people to show "unity, dignity, and courage in
resisting possible aggression" and to "be prepared to come to
the defense of the republic's vital institutions if necessary."
A separate appeal to Moldavian paramilitary volunteers, who were
officially disbanded in November, urged them to be ready for
possible mobilization. (Vladimir Socor)

12 that the first memorial day has been observed in Turkmenistan.
The institution of a memorial day was announced last month by
republican president Saparmurad Niyazov. The TASS report says
that Niyazov, People's Deputies and members of the clergy attended
commemorative ceremonies at Geok-tepe, the site of the last major
Central Asian resistance to the Russian conquest, but neglects
to note that the date of Turkmenistan's memorial day (January
12) was chosen because it is the day on which the fortress of
Geok-Tepe fell in 1881. (Bess Brown)

of newspaper editors has been formed in the Dnepropetrovsk Oblast
organization of the Ukrainian Union of Journalists to counter
pressure from conservative forces, Ukrinform and TASS reported
on January 11. Several local journalists have already been sacked
for press articles that Party conservatives find unfavorable.
(Roman Solchanyk)

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