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Nobel Laureates


NOBEL LAUREATES

Below is a list of Nobel Laureates, starting with the most recent, that were either Russian or Soviet citizens at the time of their award. There is also a large number of Laureates that were born in Russia or the USSR but had relocated, either as children or far into their careers, to other countries at the time of their award.

We have attempted to list the country correctly - Russia or the USSR - depending on the status of the country at the time of the laureate's birth and/or award.



2000 PHYSICS

Zhores I. Alferov "for the development of semiconductor heterostructures used in high-speed- and opto-electronics"


1990 PEACE

Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev, "for helping to bring the Cold War to an end"


1985 PEACE

International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War, Boston, MA, USA


1978 PHYSICS

Pyotr Leonidovich Kapitsa "for his basic inventions and discoveries in the area of low-temperature physics"

Note: The 1978 Nobel Laureate in Physics The prize was divided, one half being awarded to: Kapitsa and and the remaining 1/2 being divided betweent Arno Allan Penzias and Robert Woodrow Wilson, both of Bell Laboratories in the USA "for their discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation".


1975 ECONOMICS

Leonid Vitaliyevich Kantorovich "for their contributions to the theory of optimum allocation of resources" (see below)

Note: This prize was awarded jointly with Tjalling C. Koopmans of Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, USA


1975 PEACE

Andrei Dmitreivich Sakharov, campaigner for human rights


1970 LITERATURE

Aleksandr Isayevich Solzhenitsy ""for the ethical force with which he has pursued the indispensable traditions of Russian literature"


1965 LITERATURE

Michail Aleksandrovich Sholokhov "for the artistic power and integrity with which, in his epic of the Don, he has given expression to a historic phase in the life of the Russian people"


1964 PHYSICS

Nicolay Gennadiyevich Basov "for fundamental work in the field of quantum electronics, which has led to the construction of oscillators and amplifiers based on the maser-laser principle" (see below)


Aleksandr Mikhailovich Prokhorov "for fundamental work in the field of quantum electronics, which has led to the construction of oscillators and amplifiers based on the maser-laser principle" (see below) Note: The prize was divided with one-half being awarded to both Basov and Prokhorov (one-quarter to each) and the other half being awarded to Charles Hard Townes of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, Massachusetts.


1962 PHYSICS

Lev Davidovic Landau "for his pioneering theories for condensed matter, especially liquid helium"


1958 PHYSICS

Pavel Alekseyevich Cherenkov "for the discovery and the interpretation of the Cherenkov effect" (see below)


Il’ja Mikhailovich Frank "for the discovery and the interpretation of the Cherenkov effect" (see below)
Igor’ Evgen’evic Tamm "for the discovery and the interpretation of the Cherenkov effect" (see below)
  • Born: 1895, Vladivostock, Russia Died: 1971
  • Residence: USSR
  • Affiliation: Moscow State University (1924-37); Physics Institute of the USSR Academy of Sciences (FIAN), Moscow (1934-1971).

  • Biography from Nobel site
  • Britannca.com page
Note: The prize was awarded jointly and equally to Cherenkov, Frank and Tamm.


1958 LITERATURE

This prize was accepted first, later caused by the authorities of his country to decline the prize.)

Boris Leonidovich Pasternak for his important achievement both in contemporary lyrical poetry and in the field of the great Russian epic tradition"


1956 CHEMISTRY

Nikolay Nikolaevich Semenov "for their researches into the mechanism of chemical reactions" (see below)

  • Born: 1896, Saratov, Russia Died: 1986
  • Residence: USSR
  • Affiliation: Institute for Chemical Physics of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Moscow

  • Biography from Nobel site
  • Obituary

Note: The prize was awarded jointly to Sir Cyril Norman Hinshelwood of Oxford University, Great Britian and Nikolay Nikolaevich Semenov.


1904 PHYSIOLOGY & MEDICINE

Ivan Petrovich Pavlov "in recognition of his work on the physiology of digestion, through which knowledge on vital aspects of the subject has been transformed and enlarged"


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