2003 Ed. by T. Varis, T. Utsumi, and W. R. Klemm
University of Tampere, Hämeenlinna,
Linking Universities and
Creating a Global Biome-&-Society Living Laboratory
John D. Peine, Ph.D. and David A. Johnson, Ph.D.
University of Tennessee
The richness of opportunities for research and instruction inherent in the Southern Appalachian Man and the Biosphere (MAB) reserve is duplicated in varying degrees in each of the 425 MAB UNESCO Biosphere Reserves around the world. The challenge is to formulate and test pedagogical models which will best utilize these rich resources for on-line teaching, research and policy development. The Global University System (GUS) has proposed as part of its future program the linking of several selected, paired universities and biosphere reserves to serve as demonstrations of how best to realize the enormous potential for web-based environmental learning presented by the MAB Network and the GUS.
Through the emerging sophistication and transportability of information technology, an extraordinary opportunity now exists to link faculty and students from major universities to the international network of biosphere reserves, creating a global living laboratory. The UNESCO-MAB global network of biosphere reserves and the emerging Global University System network can provide the institutional framework to realize this extraordinary opportunity.
The Biosphere Network
UNESCO is the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization. Its headquarters is in Paris and its work is done through 73 field offices. UNESCO was created in 1946 and currently has 188 member states. UNESCO promotes collaboration among nations in education, science, culture, and communications. Among its key work areas are expanding educational opportunities, protecting world heritage sites, developing a global network of protected biosphere reserves, developing reliable world scientific standards and statistics, and promoting freedom of expression and human rights (http://www.unesco.org/).
The Man And Biosphere program was launched by UNESCO in 1970 to facilitate intergovernmental cooperation in fostering harmonious relations between humans and the biosphere (http://www.unesco.org/mab/. MAB was the first deliberate international initiative to find ways to achieve sustainable development. The Program's broad goal is "to develop the basis within the natural and social sciences for rational use and conservation of the resources of the biosphere and for the improvement of the global relationship between man and the environment: to predict the consequences of today's actions on tomorrow's world and thereby to increase man's ability to manage efficiently the natural resources of the biosphere" (UNESCO 1971). This Program created the mechanism to establish an international network of biosphere reserves representing major biogeographical regions, including gradations of human interventions. Three basic functions of biosphere reserves are as follows:
* To contribute to the conservation of landscapes, ecosystems, species and genetic variations.
* To foster ecologically, socially and culturally sustainable development.
* To provide logistical support for environmental education, training, demonstration projects, monitoring and research related to local, regional, national and global issues of conservation and sustainable development.
It is the third function to which this chapter is directed. The biosphere reserves must include a core-protected area of sufficient size and configuration to achieve the above objectives. The core area provides important opportunities for conservation, long-term observational studies and environmental education and serves as a regional benchmark of ecological health. In addition, buffer zones are defined that typically adjoin or surround core areas to demonstrate sustainable development practices. As of May 2002, there are 425 international biosphere reserves in 95 countries. These reserves occur on every continent and in a wide variety of biogeographic regions. The social-cultural-economic setting varies dramatically as does the human imprint on the biosphere reserves (http://www.unesco.org/mab/wnbr.htm).
The Global University System (GUS)
The Global University System (GUS), now under development and based in Tampere, Finland, can provide one means by which Man and Biosphere Reserves can be utilized as a resource for environmental education and scientific exchange. Prof. Tapio Varis, UNESCO Chair in Global e-Learning at the University of Tampere, Finland, and President of the Global University System has described the GUS as follows:
The Global University System is a network of networks formed in particular by higher education institutions, but also by other organizations sharing the same objectives of developing a co-operation based on solidarity and partnership aimed at:
* improving the global learning and wellness environment for people in the global knowledge society, where the global responsibility is shared by all;
* sharing and exchanging knowledge among the sectors of education-related research, industry and trade;
* giving priority to actions improving learning and healthcare world-wide;
* harnessing the technologies of broadband Internet connectivity among institutions of higher learning in the developing countries, in order to provide learners of all ages access to global e-learning across national and cultural boundaries;
* fostering youngsters around the world in a creative competition for relevance and excellence through affordable and accessible broadband Internet;
* supporting systems that complement the traditional institutions of learning and healthcare by using conventional methods together with advanced electronic media;
* improving learning and health of the disadvantaged by increasing their access through the utilization of new technologies, basing its long-term orientations on societal aims and needs and reinforcing the role of service to the whole society.
GUS has group activities in the major regions of the globe, i.e., Asia-Pacific, North, Central and South Americas, Europe, and Africa to establish pilot projects. Each of these regional groups, with partnerships of higher learning and healthcare institutions, will foster the establishment of GUS in their respective regions, with the use of an advanced global broadband Internet virtual private network. They will then become the GUS counterparts of the UNESCO/UNITWIN Networking program. The GUS at the University of Tampere, Finland is the headquarters Chair of the GUS/UNESCO/UNITWIN Networking Program.
This project of helping establish CampusNet and Community Development Networks in Amazon region with the Japanese government's funds is the forerunner of this approach of GUS. Namely, the GUS will combine the Japanese funds and electronic equipment and hardware with the expertise of telecom and content development of North America to help closing the digital divide in developing countries. GUS will emulate this approach in other developing countries around the world in the future, e.g., Mexico, Kenya, Tanzania, Nigeria, etc., from which GUS has already received preliminary inquiries and requests.
The mission of our Global University System program is not the mere enhancement of job skills with e-learning, but the creation of youngsters for the world peace for the eradication of borderless terrorism by reduction of poverty through the use of advanced Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in remote/rural areas around the world.
When broadband Internet will be available and interconnect member schools of our GUS/UNESCO/UNITWIN Networking Program, we can expect the following:
* Coalition member universities will be able to build the network of facilitators for support of e-learners,
* Learners may take one course from a university of different country, in Japan, Canada, Brazil, Finland, etc., to get his/her degree from the GUS, thus freeing them from being confined with one philosophy of a university,
* The broadband Internet will enable web-based teaching with more interaction among/between learners and instructors compared with less interaction in replicating class-room teaching via satellite -- thus stimulating global dialogues among them to attain world peace,
* Learners and faculties at the member universities can promote exchange of ideas, information, knowledge and joint research and development of web-based teaching materials, community development, and many others locally, regionally and even in global scale,
* Researchers in even developing countries can perform joint collaborative Hi-Tech research and development on various subjects, e.g., Globally Collaborative Environmental Peace Gaming, micro-biology, meteorology, chemical molecular study, DNA analysis, 3D human anatomy, design of space shuttle (a NASA project for training high school students around the world), etc.
In a sense, the GUS/UNESCO/UNITWIN
Networking Chair program is to construct global scale knowledge forum with
advanced ICT, e.g., with the use of massive parallel processors of globally
distributed and yet interconnected mini-supercomputers around the world through
Global Broadband Internet (GBI) of the global neural computer network see
Section XVI-B in;
http://www.friends-partners.org/GLOSAS/Manaus Workshop/Tinker Foundation/Application Form/Tinker_Proposal_Web/Full_Proposal.html (Varis, 2002).
The GUS is thus well positioned to assist in fostering university ties to biosphere reserves for the purpose of scientific exchanges and environmental education at graduate and undergraduate levels. When wireless broadband becomes available, biosphere reserves may be paired with university centers and linked to research centers worldwide. The GUS has, for example, been actively working with universities in Amazonas, Brazil, Finland, Malawi, The Philippines, Uganda, Ukraine, and Tennessee in the United States, to name a few. In each of these countries or states there are registered MAB sites that could be linked to research universities in-country and with research centers around the world for mutual learning and investigations. Later in this paper we will describe how such linkages can be developed, utilizing the example of experiences in the Southern Appalachian Region of the US.
Information systems technology is rapidly evolving to include more diverse forms of communication via a variety of media. The Internet has become a primary tool for locating and dispersing information, assessing social attitudes, economic viability and environmental conditions, policy formulation, and communication. Instant messaging is becoming commonplace. Fiber optics has provided faster service via the broadband Internet resulting in greater capacity for rapid information transfer. Websites and portals provide tools for direct communication via emails, videos, chat rooms and video conferencing. Website links are being utilized routinely to aid those seeking specific information or technical support. Geographic information systems technology is a key tool to archive and access information on temporal and spatial formats and scales. Decision-makers for policy and resources management utilize information technology to gather information, discuss alternatives and convey results of their processes to constituencies. Geographic positioning devises routinely being utilized to submit field collected data via satellite to websites for storage and analysis.
These increasingly capable and flexible tools can be applied to connect university faculty and students in a variety of venues with staff at biosphere reserves, government and non-governmental organizations and local communities. Teleconferencing is ideal for training, science workshops, discussions concerning innovative resources management and species conservation practices, and sister gateway community exchanges. Dissemination of environmental education via the Internet to targeted audiences, such as public schools, can be very effective. Engaging citizen-scientists in natural resource monitoring is becoming commonplace via the Internet which significantly expands the capabilities of natural scientists. Palm pilots with geo-referencing devises and satellite link capabilities has transformed field data collection.
The importance of establishing this global "living laboratory" is best illustrated by the alarming degradation of the global environmental condition. Global warming, waves of invasive species, increased incidences of new pests and pathogens, proliferation of a vast variety of pollutants, unsustainable harvest of renewable natural resources of all types, and escalating extraction of non-renewable resources. Of greatest concern is the cumulative effect of this long list of categories of threats on the natural environment. The most devastating driver of environmental degradation is the escalating land use conversion from the natural environment to human use. The holistic ramifications of the slogan "think globally and act locally" is difficult to grasp. The proposed linkage between universities and biosphere reserves will provide tools to better illustrate the importance of adherence to this axiom.
The applications of the proposed Biome & Society Living Laboratory are envisioned to focus on two overarching themes: environmental health and the interaction between human society and the biosphere.
Suggested environmental sub-themes include strategies to pursue the follow topics:
* Institutional frameworks for collaboration
* Ecosystem management
* Species inventories
* Environmental monitoring
* Ecological assessments
* Climate change
* Risk assessment
* Conservation techniques
* Management of human influenced landscapes
* Ecosystem restoration
* Information management
* Pollution control
* Pests, pathogens and invasive species
* Fire management
* Species repatriation
* Create predictive models of species populations, ecological processes and the human imprint
* Assess and predict the synergistic and cumulative effects of perturbations on the environment at the species, community and ecosystem levels
Suggested societal sub-themes include the following:
* Assess human utilization of the environment
* Measuring societal values related to the environment
* Cultural traditions
* Economic dependencies on natural resources
* Sustainable development practices
* Greenways as linkage corridors among isolated protected areas
* Building environmentally responsible gateway communities
* Communication on critical issues
* Empowering of non-government organizations
* Education on the environment
Linking Biosphere Reserves and Universities Via a Distance Learning Network: Proposal for a Demonstration Project
Issue of Concern
The centerpiece of the UNESCO Man and Biosphere program, in which 95 nations participate, is the international network of 425 biosphere reserves. Dual objectives of the reserves are to protect and sustain viable examples of the planet's primary biomes while at the same time demonstrating how people and natural environments can sustainably co-exist on the landscape. The heart of the concept is to establish a core area to protect a sustainable ecosystem surrounded by a buffer zone where projects are located demonstrating the principles of sustainable development. This visionary concept first crafted in the early 1970s, is more relevant today than ever as human activity overwhelms natural environmental system on a global scale. With the advancement of information and communication technology, the time is right to encourage communication among those managing this global system of biosphere reserves. Distance learning linking biosphere reserve managers with educational institutions can become a key tool for communication encouraging a sense of belonging to a truly interactive global system of reserves. The Global University System is ideally suited to provide a technical framework for providing a multidimensional communication and learning network for the biosphere reserves.
Goal and Objectives of the Demonstration Project
The initial goal of the project is to build a prototype network of partnerships between selected universities and biosphere reserves to foster communication and problem-solving capability. The ultimate goal is to extend the network to the entire system of biosphere reserves. The intent is to enhance management capability to protect the natural and cultural resources of the biosphere reserve system and to demonstrate by example the principles of sustainable living. The universities will play the key role of facilitating the technology associated with distance learning. Specific objectives include the following:
1. Establish the communications equipment necessary at participating universities to establish long distance learning capability.
2. Recruit personnel associated with biosphere reserves interested in working with the host universities.
3. Select prototype topics of common interest and develop an appropriate educational/communication program.
4. Evaluate the effectiveness of the initial program and based on lessons learned, design and execute and evaluate a series of additional programs.
Select paired universities and biosphere reserves that have a tradition of cooperation to demonstrate the potential to utilize distance learning to expand the scope of such cooperative activities. Potential candidates under consideration include the following:
* USA: Southern Appalachian Biosphere Reserve Cooperative and The University of Tennessee
* Costa Rica: La Amistad and the University of Costa Rica and Universidad National de Costa Rica
* Russia: Priosko-Terrasny Reserve and the Moscow Pedagogical Institute
* Africa: (sites to be selected)
* New Zealand: Fiordland National Park and the University of Auckland
* Brazil: (sites to be selected)
Participants in the program will ultimately decide priority topics for exploration as part of the distance learning initiative. Suggested relevant themes include the following.
1. Use of globally available remote sensing data sources to assess the status of the natural and cultural resource setting of the biosphere reserves via USGS, NASA and NOAA.
2. Designing and implementing natural and cultural resource inventory and monitoring systems.
3. Threatened/endangered species conservation practices.
4. Exotic species control technology.
5. Status of neo-tropical migratory bird populations and their habitats via Partners-in-Flight.
6. Building sustainable ecotourism industries targeted to enhance local economy while enhancing conservation of native ecosystem and indigenous cultures via Ecotourism Society and Conservation International that has developed prototype ecologies operated by indigenous peoples.
7. Development of educational material related to natural and cultural resources and their conservation.
8. Technical assistance and fund raising for resource conservation and ecosystem restoration projects utilizing relevant non-government organizations and corporations invested in the region.
1. Appropriate equipment at participating universities.
2. Project coordinator.
3. Stipends for participants to cover their expenses.
4. Funds for instructors to conduct research, prepare instructional materials, lesson plans and to conduct the research.
* Select participating universities and biosphere reserves.
* Outfit each university with appropriate equipment as necessary.
* Select university long distance learning coordinators, instructors, reserve participants.
* Conduct and evaluate trial thematic program.
* Facilitate web connections to demonstration sites for other Biosphere sites worldwide, where feasible.
* Conduct additional thematic programs.
* Extend concept to additional MAB sites.
* Develop K-12, post-secondary educational modules to aid understanding of the role and importance of Biosphere reserves and their surrounding regions.
Strategy for Building the Prototype Network of Distance Learning Centers
* The Global University System will provide initial access to satellite networks and technical assistance to connect the various demonstration and university sites.
* The project would initially be based at the SAMAB/University of Tennessee, Knoxville SAMAB, Southern Appalachian Man and Biosphere, is a consortium of federal, state, and local agencies focused on the preservation of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park and environs. The Park is a designated UNESCO Biosphere Reserve.) Samab info site: http://sunsite.utk.edu/samab/About/about.html
In order to illustrate the value in the proposed Global Environment-&-Society Living Laboratory, a few examples of activities at the subject biosphere reserve that are transferable to other biosphere reserves are briefly summarized here. Reference to these activities are organized by the "Dimensions of Collaboration" listed above.
Institutional Frameworks for Collaboration
Federal and Sate Government. The original boundary of the subject biosphere reserve designated in 1976 by UNESCO in the southern Appalachian Mountains in North America was limited to Great Smoky Mountains National Park and two nearby research sites. In 1988, the Southern Appalachian Man And Biosphere Cooperative (SAMAB) was establish which led 5 years later to expanding the biosphere reserve boundaries to a regional level. SAMAB is an interagency federal partnership with state government membership to facilitate collaborative natural resources management activities for the Southern Appalachian Regional Biosphere Reserve. Thematic activities of the group include environmental monitoring and assessment, sustainable development and sustainable technologies, conservation biology, ecosystem management, environmental education and training, cultural and historical resource conservation and public information and education (Hinote 1999; SAMAB 2003).
Ecosystem Management Strategies
A detailed analysis of ecosystem management programs in the Southern Appalachian Biosphere Reserve is documented in the book Ecosystem Management for Sustainability: Principles and Practices Illustrated by a Regional Biosphere Reserve Cooperative (Peine 1999). Many of the activities briefly mentioned here are discussed in detail in that volume.
Balance of forest harvest with other land uses is a longstanding multiple use mandate of the U.S. Forest Service. According to federal law, the Secretary of Agriculture is obligated to collect and maintain a current comprehensive inventory and analysis of renewable resources of U.S. forests and range lands. In addition to federally owned lands, the inventory includes analysis of all privately held forest and range lands with owner consent. Forest inventories provide information that can be vital to decision makers and policy develop. "Information is collected from over 130,000 permanent sample plots selected to assure statistical reliability" (USFS 2003).
The Southern Appalachian Assessment was completed in 1996. This comprehensive effort, managed by SAMAB, encompassed environmental, social, cultural and economic conditions in the region. This collaborative effort involved several federal agencies and university faculty. A series of comprehensive reports can be reviewed online (SAMAB SAA 2003). This extraordinary collaborative effort involved 100 individuals representing federal and state government agencies and universities. The database produced by this effort has been utilized by numerous universities, governments at all levels and non-governmental organizations (Berish et al 1999).
Climate Change and Risk Assessment
Global warming is the greatest environmental threat to the southern Appalachian biosphere (Peine 1999). University of Tennessee scientists Hazel and Paul Delcourt have determined that the high elevation spruce-fir forest in the southern Appalachians would not survive projected climate-warming trends. They correlated the presence of Frasier Fir pollen in soil sediments with the predicted climate conditions occurring when the sediments were created. As a result, they were able to correlate the spatial distribution of this forest from the last ice age to the present (Delcourt and Delcourt 2000). This forest type is a primary reason why this landscape is world famous for its biodiversity and species richness.
Genetic Engineering. American Chestnut trees have been genetically altered to incorporate a gene from Chinese Chestnut trees, which provides resistance to the Chestnut blight. This new strain of American Chestnut preserves most characteristics of American Chestnut tree. This strain is being field-tested and is expected to be reintroduced into the natural landscape in the near future (American Chestnut Foundation 2003).
Management of Human Influenced Landscapes
Different types of land use protection are as follows.
Energy Conservation. The Southern Alliance for Clean Energy (SACE) is a nonprofit organization that conducts programs concerning the environmental, public health and economic impacts of energy policies on citizens in the Southeast. In addition, an education fund provides a forum for public discussion of these issues and advocates for energy plans, policies, and systems from Southeast utilities that best serve the social, economic, and environmental interests of Southeast communities. The SACE led a campaign to purchase green power in the gateway community of Gatlinburg, Tennessee. As a result, Gatlinburg now leads the region in the percentage of commercial businesses utilizing electricity generated by non-fossil fuel sources.
Pigeon River. For 95 years, the Canton Paper Mill discharged waste into the Pigeon River running from western North Carolina to East Tennessee. The river became in effect biologically dead. The biota and fishery normally found in such a mountain stream were not present, only pollutant tolerant bacteria (Ross, 2003). After over 78 years of discharging under weak permits, political intervention from the White House and the sale of the facility to its employees finally led to a more stringent point-source permit and eventual compliance by the paper mill. As a result, the river has remarkably recovered, in spite of a heavy PCB load remaining in the sediment of the riverbed. A population of game fish has been restored to the population and the Tennessee Wildlife Resources Agency (Jonathan Burr, personal communication) is reintroducing numerous other aquatic organisms.
Copper Basin. Another poignant example is the "moonscape" type landscape at Copper Basin, TN, an area covering thousands of acres of contaminated soils and water caused by over a century of copper mining and smelting. Copper Basin has long been a national example of environmental degradation. Reforestation efforts have been underway on the property for several years. A treatment system is under construction for a highly contaminated stream, contaminated electrical equipment has been removed, voids and shafts have been filled, and fencing is being installed to restrict access to more highly contaminated areas. The restoration project will cost tens of millions of dollars to be paid by responsible companies and the federal government (TDEC 2002).
The U. S. Geological Survey has established the National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII 2003). The southern Appalachian Node of NBII is, among many other things, designing the data archiving function for the ATBI. Websites and portals are being designed to provide easy web-based access to numerous databases (NBII SAIN 2003). Metadata provides key documentation on the archived datasets. This program is located at the University of Tennessee in Knoxville and involves several university faculty.
Southern Appalachian Mountain Initiative. This initiative is a partnership between federal, state, and local agencies as well as citizen groups who are committed to understanding air quality issues in the southern Appalachian region. The initiative is focused upon Class I areas, which include 10 Southern Appalachian national parks and wilderness areas. The mission statement reads "Through a cooperative effort, identify and recommend reasonable measures to remedy existing human-induced air pollution on the air quality-related values of the Southern Appalachians, primarily those of Class 1 parks and wilderness areas, weighing the environmental and socioeconomic implications of any recommendations". A key finding of the 10 year research and modeling program was that nearby fossil fuel power plants are the primary source of pollution contributing to non-compliance in the Class 1 areas in the southern Appalachian (SAMI, 2002).
NC Clean Smokestacks Law. The North Carolina General Assembly passed senate bill 1078, in June 2002 will improve air quality in the state by imposing limits on the emission of NOx and SO2 generated by coal burning power plants. The law also provides for recovery by electric utilities of the costs of achieving compliance with those limits. The act gives the state discretion to "use all available resources and [lawful] means to induce other states and entities, including the Tennessee Valley Authority, to achieve reductions in emissions of NOx and SO2 comparable to those required by Section 1 of the Act. In particular, North Carolina would pay particular attention to states and other entities whose emissions negatively impact air quality and place the economy of the State at a competitive disadvantage.(General Assembly, Senate Bill 1078, Section 10).
Air Quality. The Great Smoky Mountains National Park monitors visibility and gaseous pollutants at its air quality station at Lock Out Rock, and the data collected is updated at the visitor center display and their web site every 15 minutes. This is a collaborative project between the Great Smoky Mountains Natural History Association, the Environmental Protection Agency, and the National Park Service. There are a number of ongoing research projects and programs associated with air quality, which include vegetation injury from ozone, chemometric programs (acidic deposition, gaseous pollutants), visibility programs, fine particle monitoring, and nephelometer. Monitoring and research activities at the park have taken place since 1980. Evidence has shown that the existing poor visibility condition is a result of increases in sulfate concentrations, primarily the anthropogenic sulfur oxide (SOx) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions from the region. Ongoing research will provide further information necessary for policy makers to make knowledgeable decisions that will improve the health of the park and the surrounding region (Peine 1999).
After 75 years of fire suppression activities, resource managers at Great Smoky Mountains National Park are aggressively reintroducing fire into the landscape so as to enhance the conditions for fire enhanced and fire dependent species (GSMNP 2003, Buckner and Turrill 1999)
A landscape-scale All Taxa Biodiversity Inventory is being conducted at Great Smoky Mountains National Park (ATBI 2003). The scale of this effort, covering 520,408 acres, is unprecedented. There are 239 researchers from no less than 65 institutions engaged in this effort including scientists from Canada, France, Great Britain, Italy, Norway, Sweden, Russia, Germany and China. So far, 2,121 species new to the park have been discovered and 334 species new to science have been discovered as well. New techniques for data collection are being devised as the project progresses.
Visitors to Great Smoky Mountains National Park indicate that the most important factor determining the quality of their visit is their knowing that the environment is healthy (Peine and Renfro 1988). A recent study of residents in the southern Appalachians indicated that a majority of the rapidly expanding number of in-migrants to the region came because it its environment and protecting environmental values is a high priority for them (Jones et al 2003).
The Cherokee Nation has launched a comprehensive cultural preservation initiative for members of the Tribe as well as the general public, which includes native crafts, language, cultural traditions and story telling.
Mountaintop Mining. This practice should be conducted within the context of all federal environmental laws. Adherence to environmental laws would potentially reduce the potential environmental impact off the mining site (Appalachian Voices 2003).
Chip Mills. Other states should follow North Carolina's lead and withhold any new permits for chip mills until a statewide analysis is conducted to assess how the practices impacts the sustainability of the state's forest resources (Dogwood Alliance 2003).
Water Consumption. The name of the game should be conservation of water resources first before tapping new sources. Water rights to the Tennessee River is the current legal battleground in the current "use first, conserve as a last resort" climate.
Communication on critical issues
The University of Tennessee at Knoxville hosts the Distance Education and Independent Study program (DEIS 2003) which includes degree programs in a wide ranging topics. In addition, the university operates the Internet eLearning Institute which among other things, includes several courses on information technologies for career professionals (IEI 2003). Also, the University of Tennessee is creating one of the first digital libraries in the region, yet another key asset to the proposed program. These three university programs could be utilized to assist in research, conduct teleconferencing meetings and training for the envisioned university and biosphere reserve network.
Empowering of non-government organizations
The National Parks Conservation Association has established a coalition of non-government organizations adjacent the Great Smoky Mountains National Park that provide a mechanism to focus greater attention on critical issues than might otherwise be possible (NPCA 2003).
Education on the environment
The National Park Service has established a program called Parks As Classroom to imbed park experience into school curriculum. The initiative, which has gone national, was started by Marie Peine at Pi Beta Phi Elementary School in the gateway community of Gatlinburg, Tennessee. The curriculum includes topics on the environment and local culture (PACR 2003).
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Author Biographical Sketch
John D. Peine, Ph.D.
108 Hoskins Library
1401 Cumberland Avenue
The University of Tennessee
Knoxville, TN 37996-4015
Phone (865) 974-4056
Fax (865) 974-5229
Dr. Peine holds a B.S. in Forestry from Purdue University and M.S. and Ph.D. in Watershed Management from the University of Arizona. He is currently a scientist with the U. S. Geological Survey and an Adjunct Research Professor at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville. He specializes in ecosystem management, information management, park visitor use studies, science evaluation, and planning. From 1979-1982 he worked with others to create the first National Heritage Corridor in the U.S. This new classification within the national park system has been applied to numerous other locations in the country and elsewhere. From 1982-1992 he was Chief Scientist at Great Smoky Mountains National Park. In 1999, the book he edited entitled "Ecosystem Management for Sustainability: Principles and Practices Illustrated by a Regional Biosphere Cooperative" was published by Lewis Publishers (ISBN #1-574440-53-5). He is a member of the World Commission on Protected Areas and provides consultative services internationally.
David A. Johnson, Ph.D., AICP
Professor Emeritus of Planning
University of Tennessee
Tel: 828 277-5792
8 Hilltop Road
Asheville, NC 28803, USA
David A. Johnson, AICP, is Professor Emeritus of Planning at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville where he served for 16 years. He was also an adjunct faculty member in the Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology. Previously he taught in and directed planning departments at Syracuse University and Ball State University. Prof. Johnson received bachelors and masters degrees in architecture and city planning from Yale University and a PhD in regional planning from Cornell University. He has been a Fulbright Scholar in India, Thailand, the Soviet Union, and Cyprus. He is a past President of the Fulbright Association of the United States and has directed educational projects in Amazonas, Brazil and Coimbra, Portugal. Prof. Johnson also has served as a professional planner on the staffs of the Washington National Capital Planning Commission and the Regional Plan Association of New York. His published writings have focused on planning theory and history and most recently have examined planning activities of the Tennessee Valley Authority and the development of the New York Metropolitan Region. He has served on the editorial board of the Journal of the American Planning Association and is the author of Planning the Great Metropolis, Chapman & Hall, 1996. Dr. Johnson is active in international distance education and is an advisor to the Global University. In 2002 he served as senior faculty member with the International Honors Program on Global Cities in India, South Africa and Brazil. The Program is affiliated with Boston University.